Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary
Female fertility depends on adequate nutrition and energy reserves, suggesting a correlation between the metabolic reserve and reproductive capacity. Leptin regulates body weight and energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether estradiol or FSH alone has a direct effect on the production of leptin.
A total of 64 patients submitted to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH for assisted reproduction and 20 patients using estradiol valerate for endometrial preparation for oocyte donation treatment were included in the study. All patients used GnRH analogues before starting treatment to achieve pituitary suppression. Blood samples for hormonal measurements were collected before starting and after completing the respective treatments. Data were analyzed statistically by the chi-square test, Student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation test.
We observed an elevation of serum leptin levels secondary to the increase in estradiol, in the absence of influence of any other ovarian or pituitary hormone. The rising rate of leptin levels was higher in women treated with recombinant FSH, which also had higher levels of estradiol, than in those treated with estradiol valerate.
This study demonstrates a correlation between serum levels of estradiol and leptin, suggesting that estradiol is an important regulator of leptin production and that its effects can be amplified by its association with FSH.
- Barash IA, Cheung CC, Weigle DS, Ren H, Kabigting EB, Kuijper JL, Clifton DK, Steiner RA: Leptin is a metabolic signal to the reproductive system. Endocrinology 1996, 137:3144–3147. CrossRef
- Bray GA: Obesity and reproduction. Hum Reprod 1997, 12:26–32. CrossRef
- Abraham SF, Beumont PJ, Fraser IS, Llewellyn-Jones D: Body weight, exercise and menstrual status among ballet dancers in training. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1982, 89:507–510. CrossRef
- Zhang Y, Proença R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM: Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 1994, 372:425–432. CrossRef
- Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Guisez Y, Devos R, Burn P: Recombinant mouse OB protein: Evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 1995, 269:546–549. CrossRef
- Pelleymounter MA, Cullen MJ, Baker MB, Hecht R, Winters D, Boone T, Collins F: Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice. Science 1995, 269:540–542. CrossRef
- Spicer LJ, Francisco CC: The adipose obese gene product, leptin. Endocrinology 1997, 138:3374–3379. CrossRef
- Clarke IJ, Henry BA: Leptin and reproduction. Rev Reprod 1999, 4:48–55. CrossRef
- Cunningham MJ, Clifton DK, Steiner RA: Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biol Reprod 1999, 60:216–222. CrossRef
- Cervero A, Domínguez F, Horcajadas JA, Quiñonero A, Pellicer A, Simón C: The role of the leptin in reproduction. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2006, 18:297–303. CrossRef
- Karlsson C, Lindell K, Svensson E, Bergh C, Lind P, Billig H, Carlsson LM, Carlsson B: Expression of functional leptin receptors in the human ovary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997, 82:4144–4148. CrossRef
- Bouvattier C, Lahlou N, Roger M: Hyperleptinaemia is associated with impaired gonadotrophin responses to GnRH during late puberty in obese girls, not boys. Eur J Endocrinol 1998, 138:653–658. CrossRef
- Riad-Gabriel MG, Jinagouda SD, Sharma A: Changes in plasma leptin during the menstrual cycle. Eur J Endocrinol 1998, 139:528–531. CrossRef
- Messinis IE, Milingos SD, Alexandris E, Kariotis I, Kollios G, Seferiadis K: Leptin concentrations in normal women following bilateral ovariectomy. Hum Reprod 1999, 4:913–918. CrossRef
- Rechberger T, Baranowski W, Postawski K: Serum leptin concentrations in women taking oral contraceptives. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1999, 83:105–108. CrossRef
- Geber S, Sales L, Sampaio M: Comparison between a single dose of goserelin (depot) and multiple daily doses of leuprolide acetate for pituitary suppression in IVF treatment: a clinical endocrinological study of the ovarian response. J Assist Reprod Genet 2002, 19:313–318. CrossRef
- Geber S, Ferreira DP, Spyer Prates LF, Sales L, Sampaio M: Effects of previous ovarian surgery for endometriosis on the outcome of assisted reproduction treatment. Reprod Biomed Online 2002, 5:162–166. CrossRef
- Sampaio A, Geber S: Births after transfer of zona-free blastocysts in oocyte donation cycles. J Assist Reprod Genet 2001, 18:156–159. CrossRef
- Yu WH, Kimura M, Walczewska A, Karanth S, McCann SM: Role of leptin in hypothalamic-pituitary function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997, 94:1023–1028. CrossRef
- Messinis IE, Milingos S, Zikopoulos K, Kollios G, Seferiadis K, Lolis D: Leptin concentrations in the follicular phase of spontaneous cycles and cycles superovulated with follicle stimulating hormone. Hum Reprod 1998, 13:1152–1156. CrossRef
- Nagatani S, Guthikonda P, Thompson RC, Tsukamura H, Maeda KI, Foster DL: Evidence for GnRH regulation by leptin: leptin administration prevents reduced pulsatile LH secretion during fasting. Neuroendocrinology 1998, 67:370–376. CrossRef
- Considine RV, Sinha MK, Heiman ML, Kriauciunas A, Stephens TW, Nyce MR, Ohannesian JP, Marco CC, McKee LJ, Bauer TL, et al.: Serum immunoreactive-leptin concentrations in normal-weight and obese humans. N Engl J Med 1996, 334:292–295. CrossRef
- Castracane VD, Kraemer RR, Franken MA, Kraemer GR, Gimpel T: Serum leptin concentration in women: effect of age, obesity, and estrogen administration. Fertil Steril 1998, 70:472–477. CrossRef
- Lin KC, Sagawa N, Yura S, Itoh H, Fujii S: Simultaneous increases of leptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone following exogenous estrogen administration in women with normally menstrual cycle. Endocr J 2005, 52:449–454. CrossRef
- Bednarek-Tupikowska G, Filus A, Kuliczkowska-Płaksej J, Tupikowski K, Bohdanowicz-Pawlak A, Milewicz A: Serum leptin concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal women on sex hormone therapy. Gynecol Endocrinol 2006, 22:207–212. CrossRef
- Sağsöz N, Orbak Z, Noyan V, Yücel A, Uçar B, Yildiz L: The effects of oral contraceptives including low-dose estrogen and drospirenone on the concentration of leptin and ghrelin in polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril 2009, 92:660–666. CrossRef
- O'Neil JS, Burow ME, Green AE, McLachlan JA, Henson MC: Effects of estrogen on leptin gene promoter activation in MCF-7 breast cancer and JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells: selective regulation via estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001, 176:67–75. CrossRef
- Strowitzki T, Kellerer M, Capp E: Increase in serum leptin concentrations in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for assisted reproduction. Gynecol Endocrinol 1998, 12:167–169. CrossRef
- Zhao Y, Kreger DO, Brannian JD: Serum leptin concentrations in women during gonadotropin stimulation cycles. J Reprod Med 2000, 45:121–125.
- Cioffi JA, Van Blerkom J, Antczak M, Shafer A, Wittmer S, Snodgrass HR: The expression of leptin and its receptors in pre–ovulatory human follicles. Mol Hum Reprod 1997, 3:372–467. CrossRef
- Rosenbaum M, Nicolson M, Hirsch J, Heymsfield SB, Gallagher D, Chu F, Leibel RL: Effects of gender, body compostion, and menopause on plasama concentrations of leptin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996, 81:3424–3427. CrossRef
- Abir R, Ao A, Jin S, Raanani H, Ben-Haroush A, Fisch B: Leptin and its receptors in human fetal and adult ovaries. Fertil Steril 2005, 84:1779–1782. CrossRef
- Effects of estradiol and FSH on leptin levels in women with suppressed pituitary
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology
- Online Date
- June 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links