Health and Quality of Life Outcomes

, 4:40

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Development of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12

  • Afsane RiaziAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London
  • , Clare BradleyAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London Email author 
  • , Shalleen BarendseAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London
  • , Hitoshi IshiiAffiliated withDiabetes Centre, Tenri Hospital



The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) was designed to measure psychological well-being in people with diabetes. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version and a short form of the W-BQ.


A linguistic validation process produced a preliminary Japanese version of the 22-item W-BQ, which was distributed to 550 patients. Factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and aspects of validity (hypothesised group differences and correlations with other measures) were evaluated.


Questionnaires were returned by 464 patients (84.4%). Preliminary factor analysis revealed that the Depression and Anxiety items were dispersed according to the positive or negative direction of the wording. A 12-item W-BQ (Japanese W-BQ12), consisting of three 4-item subscales (Negative Well-being, Energy and Positive Well-being), was constructed that balanced positively and negatively worded items. Cronbach's alpha was high (>0.85) for the 12-item questionnaire and consistently high (>0.82) across sex and treatment subgroups. Cronbach's alpha for subscale scores in the total sample ranged from 0.69 (Energy) to 0.80 (Positive Well-being). Expected subgroup differences indicated significantly poorer well-being in women compared with men and in insulin-treated patients compared with tablet/diet treated patients. Discriminant and convergent validity was supported by minimal correlations between W-BQ12 scores and HbA1c and low-to-moderate correlations with Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) scores.


The W-BQ12 (Japanese) is a short, reliable and valid measure of psychological well-being that is suitable for use with people with diabetes. The items selected to produce the W-BQ12 (Japanese) have since produced psychometrically sound 12-item short-form measures in other translations for use in diabetes and in other chronic illnesses.