Development of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12
The Well-being Questionnaire (W-BQ) was designed to measure psychological well-being in people with diabetes. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version and a short form of the W-BQ.
A linguistic validation process produced a preliminary Japanese version of the 22-item W-BQ, which was distributed to 550 patients. Factor structure, reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and aspects of validity (hypothesised group differences and correlations with other measures) were evaluated.
Questionnaires were returned by 464 patients (84.4%). Preliminary factor analysis revealed that the Depression and Anxiety items were dispersed according to the positive or negative direction of the wording. A 12-item W-BQ (Japanese W-BQ12), consisting of three 4-item subscales (Negative Well-being, Energy and Positive Well-being), was constructed that balanced positively and negatively worded items. Cronbach's alpha was high (>0.85) for the 12-item questionnaire and consistently high (>0.82) across sex and treatment subgroups. Cronbach's alpha for subscale scores in the total sample ranged from 0.69 (Energy) to 0.80 (Positive Well-being). Expected subgroup differences indicated significantly poorer well-being in women compared with men and in insulin-treated patients compared with tablet/diet treated patients. Discriminant and convergent validity was supported by minimal correlations between W-BQ12 scores and HbA1c and low-to-moderate correlations with Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ) scores.
The W-BQ12 (Japanese) is a short, reliable and valid measure of psychological well-being that is suitable for use with people with diabetes. The items selected to produce the W-BQ12 (Japanese) have since produced psychometrically sound 12-item short-form measures in other translations for use in diabetes and in other chronic illnesses.
- Bradley C, Gamsu D: Guidelines for encouraging psychological well-being: Report of a Working Group of the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Europe and International Diabetes Federation European Region St. Vincent Declaration Action Programme for Diabetes. Diabetic Med 1994, 11:510–516. CrossRef
- Weinberger M, Kirkman MS, Samsa GP, Cowper PA, Shortliffe EA, Simel DL, Feusser JR: The relationship between glycaemic control and health-related quality of life in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Med Care 1994, 32:1173–1181. CrossRef
- Bradley C: The Well-being Questionnaire. Handbook of Psychology and Diabetes: A Guide to Psychological Measurement in Diabetes Research and Practice (Edited by: Bradley C). Chur: Harwood Academic Publishers 1994, 89–109.
- Bradley C, Lewis KS: Measures of psychological well-being and treatment satisfaction developed from the responses of people with tablet-treated diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 1990, 7:445–451. CrossRef
- Warr PB, Banks MH, Ullah P: The experience of unemployment among black and white urban teenagers. Brit J of Psychol 1985, 76:75–87.
- Zung WWK: A self-rating depression scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1965, 12:63–70.
- McMIllan C, Bradley C, Gibney J, Russell-Jones DL, Sönksen PH: Psychometric properties of two measures of psychological well-being in adult growth hormone deficiency. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2006,4(1):16. CrossRef
- Mitchell J, Bradley C: Psychometric evaluation of the 12-item Well-being Questionnaire for use with people with macular disease. Qual Life Res 2001, 10:465–473. CrossRef
- Acquadro C, Jambon B, Ellis D, Marquis P: Language and translation issues. Quality of life and pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials (Edited by: Spilker B). Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Publishers 1996, 575–585.
- Ishii H, Bradley C, Riazi A, Barendse S, Yamamoto T: The Japanese version of the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ): translation and clinical evaluation. Journal of Clinical Experimental Medicine 2000, 192:809–814. (a Japanese Journal publishing in Japanese).
- Cronbach LJ: Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika 1951, 16:297–334. CrossRef
- Watson D, Clarke LA, Tellegen A: Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1988, 54:1063–1070. CrossRef
- Nunnally JC: Psychometric theory 2 Edition New York: McGraw-Hill 1978.
- Thibult N: Tables: Clinical, biological and psychological analyses of the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) pump study. Report to the World Health Organisation, Regional Office for Europe Copenhagen 1990.
- Speight J, Barendse S, Bradley C: Impact of positively vs negatively worded items on the factor structure of three psychosocial measures: W-BQ22, W-BQ12 and HADS. Proc Brit Psychol Soc 2000, 8:21.
- Pouwer F, Snoek FJ, van der Ploeg HM, Ader HJ, Heine RJ: The Well-being Questionnaire: evidence for a 3-factor structure with 12 items (W-BQ12). Psychol Med 2000, 30:455–462. CrossRef
- Breslau N, Chilcoat H, Schultz LR: Anxiety disorders and the emergence of sex difference in major depression. J Gend Specif Med 1998, 1:33–39.
- Witthaus E, Stewart J, Bradley C: Treatment satisfaction and psychological well-being with insulin glargine compared with NPH in patients with Type 1 diabetes. Diab Med 2001, 18:619–625. CrossRef
- Pouwer F, van der Ploeg HM, Ader HJ, Heine RJ, Snoek FJ: The 12-item Well-being Questionnaire: An evaluation of its validity and reliability in Dutch people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1999, 22:2004–2010. CrossRef
- Rasch G: Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1960.
- Bollen KA, Long JS: Testing structural equation models Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications 1993.
- Stewart AL, Hays RD, Ware JE Jr: The MOS Short-Form General Health Survey: reliability and validity in a patient population. Med Care 1988, 26:724–735. CrossRef
- Development of the Well-being questionnaire short-form in Japanese: the W-BQ12
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
- Online Date
- July 2006
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links