Comparison of the OHIP-14 and GOHAI as measures of oral health among elderly in Lebanon
The respective abilities of the GOHAI and OHIP-14 to discriminate between aged patients with different levels of oral diseases have rarely been studied in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare the discriminative abilities of the OHIP-14 and the GOHAI in an elderly Lebanese population, and particularly to identify persons with different masticatory function.
A sample of elderly, aged 65 years or more, living independently was recruited in two primary care offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Data were collected by means of personal interview and clinical examination. The Arabic OHIP-14 and GOHAI questionnaires were used after cultural adaptation for use in Lebanon. The internal consistency, reproducibility and concurrent validity were verified. To test their discriminative abilities, the ADD (GOHAI and OHIP) and SC (GOHAI and OHIP) scores were dichotomized according to the 25th and 75th percentile respectively and logistic regressions were conducted using socio-demographic, clinical and subjective explanatory variables.
Two hundred and six participants were included; mean age was 72 years and 60% were women. Good psychometric properties were observed for both questionnaires for internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha>0.88), reproducibility (ICC>0.86) and concurrent validity. Strong correlations were found between GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores but a high prevalence of subjects with no impact was observed using the OHIP-14. Both questionnaires were able to discriminate between participants according to age, perception of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain or functional status as represented by the number of dental Functional Units (FU). GOHAI was more discriminant since it identified participants with high dental care needs: high numbers of decayed teeth, low numbers of teeth and socially deprived status.
Lebanese elderly with high dental care needs and impaired oral health were identified more easily with the GOHAI. These results may guide the choice of dental indicators to use in a national geriatric survey.
- El Osta N, Tubert-Jeannin S, Bou Abboud Naaman N, Hennequin M, El Osta L, Geahchan N: Vieillissement de la population Libanaise: démographie, évaluation sanitaire et impact en santé bucco-dentaire. IAJD 2011, 2:5–12.
- El Osta N, Tubert-Jeannin S, Bou Abboud Naaman N, Hennequin M, El Osta L, Geahchan N: Oral and General Health Indicators for Lebanese Elderly in Oral surveys: Review Article. IAJD 2012, 3:54–61.
- World Health Organisation: The World Oral Health Report: Continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century -the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. World Health Organisation, Geneva; 2003.
- Sischo L, Broder HL: Oral health-related quality of life: what, why, how and future implications. J Dent Res 2011, 90:1264–1270. CrossRef
- Allen FP: Assessment of oral health related quality of life. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2003, 1:40. 8 pages CrossRef
- Guyatt GH, Feeny DH, Patrick DL: Measuring health-related quality of life. Ann Intern Med 1993,118(8):622–629.
- Hebling E, Pereira AC: Oral health-related quality of life: a critical appraisal of assessment tools used in elderly people. Gerodontology 2007, 24:151–161. CrossRef
- Atchison KA, Dolan TA: Development of the geriatric oral health assessment index. J Dent Educ 1990, 54:680–687.
- Slade GD, Spencer AJ: Development and evaluation of the oral health impact profile. Community Dent Health 1994, 11:3–11.
- Slade GD: Derivation and validation of a short form of the oral health impact profile. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1997, 25:284–290. CrossRef
- Tubert-Jeannin S, Riordan PJ, Morel-Papernot A, Porcheray S, Saby-Collet S: Validation of an oral health quality of life index (GOHAI) in France. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003, 31:275–284. CrossRef
- Naito M, Suzukamo Y, Nakayama T, Hamajima N, Fukuhara S: Linguistic adaptation and validation of the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) in an elderly Japanese population. J Public Health Dent 2006, 4:273–275. CrossRef
- Hassel AJ, Rolko C, Koke U, Leisen J, Rammelsberg P: A German version of the GOHAI. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2008, 36:34–42.
- Einarson S, Warnberg Gerdin E, Hugoson A: Oral health impact on quality of life in an adult Swedish population. Acta Odontol Scand 2009, 67:85–93. CrossRef
- A-Dan W, Jun-Qi L: Factors associated with the oral health-related quality of life in elderly persons in dental clinic: validation of a Mandarin Chinese version of GOHAI. Gerodontology 2011, 28:184–191. CrossRef
- Sanchez-Garcia S, Heredia-Ponce E, Juarez-Cedillo T, Gallegos-Carillo K, Espinel-Bermudez C, de la Fuente-Hernandez J, Garcia-Pena C: Psychometric properties of the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and dental status of an elderly Mexican population. J Public Health Dent 2010, 10:300–307. CrossRef
- Daradkeh S, Khader Y: Translation and validation of the Arabic version of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). J Oral Sci 2008, 50:453–459. CrossRef
- Attieh M: Arabic version of the geriatric oral health assessment index. Gerodontology 2008, 25:34–41. CrossRef
- Al-Jundi MA, Szentpétery A, John MT: An Arabic version of the oral health impact profile: translation and psychometric properties. Int Dent J 2007, 57:84–92. CrossRef
- Locker D, Matear D, Stephens M, Lawrence H, Payne B: Comparison of the GOHAI and OHIP-14 as measures of the oral health-related quality of life of the elderly. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2001, 29:373–381. CrossRef
- Hassel AJ, Steuker B, Rolko C, Keller L, Rammelsberg P, Nitschke I: Oral health-related quality of life of elderly Germans-comparison of GOHAI and OHIP-14. Community Dent Health 2010, 27:242–247.
- Ikebe K, Hazeyama T, Enoki K, Murai S, Okada T, Kagawa R, Matsuda KI, Maeda Y: Comparison of GOHAI and OHIP-14 measures in relation to objective values of oral function in elderly Japanese. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2012. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22469135
- Hassel AJ, Danner D, Schmitt M, Nitschke I, Rammelsberg P, Wahl HW: Oral health-related quality of life is linked with subjective well-being and depression in early old age. Clin Oral Investig 2011,15(5):691–697. Epub 2010 Jun 26 CrossRef
- Habashneh RA, Khader YS, Salameh S: Use of the Arabic version of Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on oral health-related quality of life among Jordanian adults. J Oral Sci 2012,54(1):113–120. CrossRef
- Locker D, Allen F: What do measures of “oral health-related quality of life” measure? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007,35(6):401–411. CrossRef
- Fuentes-García A, Lera L, Sánchez H, Albala C: Oral health-related quality of life of older people from three South American cities. Gerodontology 2012. [Epub ahead of print]
- Beaton D, Bombardier C, Guillemin F, Ferraz MB: Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine 2000, 25:3186–3191. CrossRef
- Locker D, Jokovic A, Allison P: Direction of wording and responses to items in oral health-related quality of life questionnaires for children and their parents. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007,35(4):255–262. CrossRef
- United Nations Development program in Lebanon: Central Administration of Statistics: Living Conditions of the Households in Lebanon. Beyrouth; 2007:344. http://www.undp.org.lb/communication/publications/index.cfm
- Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Bratthall D, Ogawa H: Oral health information systems – towards measuring progress in oral Healt promotion and disease prévention. Bull World Health Organisation 2005, 83:686–93. ISBN 9241544937
- Cohen C, Tabarly P, Hourcade S, Kirchner-Bianchi C, Hennequin M: Quelles réponses aux besoins en santé buccodentaire des personnes âgées en institution? Presse Med 2006, 35:1639–1648. CrossRef
- Godlewski AE, Veyrune JL, Nicolas E, Ciangura CA, Chaussain CC, Czernichow S, Basdevant A, Hennequin M: Effect of dental status on changes in mastication in patients with obesity following bariatric surgery. PLoS One 2011, 6:e22324. Epub 2011 Jul 20 CrossRef
- Cheung YB, Goh C, Thumboo J, Khoo KS, Wee J: Quality of life scores differed according to mode of administration in a review of three major oncology questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol 2006,59(2):185–191. CrossRef
- Hildebrandt GH, Dominguez BL, Schork MA, Loesche WJ: Functional units, chewing, swallowing, and food avoidance among the elderly. J Prosthet Dent 1997, 77:588–595. CrossRef
- Walls A, Steele J, Sheiham A, Marcenes W, Moynihan J: Oral health and nutrition in older people. J Public Health Dent 2000, 60:304–307. CrossRef
- Leake J, Hawkins R, Locker D: Social and functional impact of reduced posterior dental units in older adults. J Oral Rehabil 1994, 21:1–10. CrossRef
- Veyrune JL, Miller CC, Czernichow S, Ciangura CA, Nicolas E, Hennequin M: Impact of morbid obesity on chewing ability. Obes Surg 2008, 18:1467–1472. CrossRef
- Cousson PY, Bessadet M, Nicolas E, Veryune JL, Lesourd B, Lassauzay C: Nutritional status, dietary intake and oral quality of life in elderly complete denture wearers. Gerodontology 2011, 28:1–8. CrossRef
- Jose De Marchi R, Neves Hugo F, Balbinot Hilgert J, Pereira Padilha D: Association between oral health status and nutritional status in south Brazilian independent-living older people. Nutrition 2008, 24:546–553. CrossRef
- Tsakos G, Sheiham A, Iliffe S, Kharicha K, Harari D, Swift CG, Gillman G, Stuck AE: The impact of educational level on oral health-related quality of life in older people in London. Eur J Oral Sci 2009, 117:286–292. CrossRef
- Locker D, Slade G: Association between clinical and subjective indicators of oral health status in an older adult population. Gerodontology 1994, 1:108–114. CrossRef
- Comparison of the OHIP-14 and GOHAI as measures of oral health among elderly in Lebanon
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
- Online Date
- October 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- Oral health
- Quality of Life
- Lebanese elderly
- Psychometric properties
- Health status indicators
- Dental health survey
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
- 2. Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
- 3. Centre de Recherche en Odontologie Clinique-EA4847, Clermont University, University of Auvergne, BP-10448, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France
- 4. CHU of Clermont-Ferrand, Department of odontology, Hôtel-Dieu, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France
- 5. Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon