Research article

BMC Ophthalmology

, 12:16

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Predictive factors for final outcome of severely traumatized eyes with no light perception

  • Rupesh AgrawalAffiliated withDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital Email author 
  • , Ho Sue WeiAffiliated withMinistry of Health Holdings
  • , Stephen TeohAffiliated withDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tan Tock Seng Hospital



An eye injury that causes no light perception (NLP) typically carries an unfavorable prognosis, and NLP because of trauma is a common indication for enucleation. With advances in vitreoretinal surgical techniques, however, the indication for enucleation is no longer determined by posttrauma NLP vision alone. There are limited studies in the literature to analyse the outcome of NLP eyes following open globe injury. The current study was aimed to evaluate the outcome of surgical repair of severely traumatized eyes with no light perception vision as preoperative visual acuity. Secondary objective was to possibly predict the factors affecting the final vision outcome in this eyes.


Retrospective case analysis of patients with surgical repair of open globe injury over last ten years at a tertiary referral eye care centre in Singapore.


Out of one hundred and seventy two eyes with open globe injury 27 (15.7%) eyes had no light perception (NLP). After surgical repair, final visual acuity remained NLP in 18 (66.7%) eyes. Final vision improved to Light perception/ Hand movement (LP/HM) in 2(7.4%) eyes, 1/200 to 19/200(11.1%) in 3 eyes and 20/50-20/200(14.8%) in 4 eyes. The median follow up was 18.9 months (range: 4–60 months). The factors contributing to poor postoperative outcome were presence of RAPD (p = 0.014), wound extending into zone III (p = 0.023) and associated vitreoretinal trauma (p = 0.008).


One third of eyes had ambulatory vision or better though two third of eyes still remained NLP. Pre-operative visual acuity of NLP should not be an indication for primary enucleation or evisceration for severely traumatized eyes. Presence of afferent papillary defect, wound extending posterior to rectus insertion and associated vitreoretinal trauma can adversely affect the outcome in severely traumatized eyes with NLP. Timely intervention and state of art surgery may restore useful vision in severely traumatized eyes.


Open globe injury RAPD No light perception (NLP) Zone III injury Vitroretinal trauma