The independent prokaryotic origins of eukaryotic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase and the implications of their origins for the evolution of eukaryotic Calvin cycle
- Yong-Hai JiangAffiliated withState Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of SciencesGraduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Email author
- , De-Yong WangAffiliated withState Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of SciencesGraduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Email author
- , Jian-Fan WenAffiliated withState Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Email author
In the Calvin cycle of eubacteria, the dephosphorylations of both fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphate (SBP) are catalyzed by the same bifunctional enzyme: fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase/sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (F/SBPase), while in that of eukaryotic chloroplasts by two distinct enzymes: chloroplastic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase (SBPase), respectively. It was proposed that these two eukaryotic enzymes arose from the divergence of a common ancestral eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase of mitochondrial origin. However, no specific affinity between SBPase and eubacterial FBPase or F/SBPase can be observed in the previous phylogenetic analyses, and it is hard to explain why SBPase and/or F/SBPase are/is absent from most extant nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes according to this scenario.
Domain analysis indicated that eubacterial F/SBPase of two different resources contain distinct domains: proteobacterial F/SBPases contain typical FBPase domain, while cyanobacterial F/SBPases possess FBPase_glpX domain. Therefore, like prokaryotic FBPase, eubacterial F/SBPase can also be divided into two evolutionarily distant classes (Class I and II). Phylogenetic analysis based on a much larger taxonomic sampling than previous work revealed that all eukaryotic SBPase cluster together and form a close sister group to the clade of epsilon-proteobacterial Class I FBPase which are gluconeogenesis-specific enzymes, while all eukaryotic chloroplast FBPase group together with eukaryotic cytosolic FBPase and form another distinct clade which then groups with the Class I FBPase of diverse eubacteria. Motif analysis of these enzymes also supports these phylogenetic correlations.
There are two evolutionarily distant classes of eubacterial bifunctional F/SBPase. Eukaryotic FBPase and SBPase do not diverge from either of them but have two independent origins: SBPase share a common ancestor with the gluconeogenesis-specific Class I FBPase of epsilon-proteobacteria (or probably originated from that of the ancestor of epsilon-proteobacteria), while FBPase arise from Class I FBPase of an unknown kind of eubacteria. During the evolution of SBPase from eubacterial Class I FBPase, the SBP-dephosphorylation activity was acquired through the transition “from specialist to generalist”. The evolutionary substitution of the endosymbiotic-origin cyanobacterial bifunctional F/SBPase by the two light-regulated substrate-specific enzymes made the regulation of the Calvin cycle more delicate, which contributed to the evolution of eukaryotic photosynthesis and even the entire photosynthetic eukaryotes.
KeywordsFBPase SBPase F/SBPase Evolution Calvin cycle
- The independent prokaryotic origins of eukaryotic fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and sedoheptulose-1, 7-bisphosphatase and the implications of their origins for the evolution of eukaryotic Calvin cycle
- Open Access
- Available under Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
BMC Evolutionary Biology
- Online Date
- October 2012
- Online ISSN
- BioMed Central
- Additional Links
- Calvin cycle
- Author Affiliations
- 1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunan, 650223, China
- 2. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039, China