, Volume 167, Issue 1, pp 113-119
Date: 28 Mar 2009

A simultaneous multiwavelength dispersive X-ray reflectometer for time-resolved reflectometry

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Aiming for the realization of time-resolved specular X-ray reflectivity measurements on the sub-second to millisecond timescales, a conceptually new method of measuring specular X-ray reflectivity curves is developed. Using this method the entire profile of the reflectivity curve of interest is measured in place. A horizontally convergent X-ray beam which has a one-to-one correlation between its direction and energy is realized using a curved crystal or laterally graded multilayers on an elliptic substrate. The X-ray beam is then incident on the surface of the specimen placed at the focus such that the glancing angle in the vertical direction is the same for all X-ray components, which are reflected in the vertical direction by the surface and diverge in the horizontal plane. The perpendicular momentum transfer continuously changes as a function of the horizontal ray direction even with fixed glancing angle since the wavelength (energy) changes. The X-ray intensity distribution across the beam direction measured downstream of the specimen using a one- or two-dimensional detector represents the X-ray reflectivity curve. Specular X-ray reflectivity curves are measured with exposure times ranging from 2 ms to 1 s for a gold film of thickness 14.3 nm on a silicon substrate. The potential of this method for time-resolved measurements is demonstrated by recording reflectivity curves with a time resolution of 20 ms from a rotating specimen.