Regular Article

The European Physical Journal Plus

, 127:71

Determination of a time-shift in the OPERA set-up using high-energy horizontal muons in the LVD and OPERA detectors

  • For the LVD Collaboration
  • , N. Yu. AgafonovaAffiliated withINR-RAS
  • , P. AntonioliAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
  • , V. V. AshikhminAffiliated withINR-RAS
  • , G. BariAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
  • , E. BressanAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
  • , L. EvansAffiliated withCERN
  • , M. GarbiniAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
  • , P. GiustiAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , A. S. MalguinAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , R. PersianiAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , V. G. RyasnyAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , O. G. RyazhskayaAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , G. SartorelliAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , E. ScapparoneAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , M. SelviAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , I. R. ShakirianovaAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , L. VotanoAffiliated withINFN-LNFINFN-LNGS
    • , H. WennigerAffiliated withCERN
    • , V. F. YakushevAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , A. ZichichiAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNCERNUniversità di Bologna
    • , For the OPERA Collaboration
    • , N. AgafonovaAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , A. AlexandrovAffiliated withSezione di Napoli, INFN
    • , A. BertolinAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFN
    • , R. BrugneraAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFNUniversità di Padova
    • , B. BüttnerAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , V. ChiarellaAffiliated withINFN-LNF
    • , A. ChukanovAffiliated withINR-RASJINR
    • , N. D’AmbrosioAffiliated withINFN-LNGS
    • , G. De LellisAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Napoli, INFNUniversità di Napoli
    • , A. Di CrescenzoAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Napoli, INFNUniversità di Napoli
    • , D. Di FerdinandoAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , N. Di MarcoAffiliated withINFN-LNGS
    • , S. DmitrievskyAffiliated withINR-RASJINR
    • , M. DracosAffiliated withINR-RASIPHC
    • , S. DusiniAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFN
    • , J. EbertAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , A. EreditatoAffiliated withINR-RASLHEP
    • , T. FerberAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , R. A. FiniAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Bari, INFN
    • , A. GarfagniniAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFNUniversità di Padova
    • , G. GiacomelliAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , C. GöllnitzAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , Y. GornushkinAffiliated withINR-RASJINR
    • , F. GriantiAffiliated withINR-RASUniversità di Urbino
    • , C. GustavinoAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNSezione di Roma, INFN
    • , C. HagnerAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , M. HierholzerAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , A. HollnagelAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , K. JakovcicAffiliated withINR-RASIRB
    • , C. JolletAffiliated withINR-RASIPHC
    • , B. KlicekAffiliated withINR-RASIRB
    • , U. KoseAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFN
    • , J. LenkeitAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , A. LjubicicAffiliated withINR-RASIRB
    • , A. LonghinAffiliated withINFN-LNF
    • , A. MalginAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , G. MandrioliAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , V. MatveevAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , N. MauriAffiliated withINFN-LNF
    • , E. MedinaceliAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFNUniversità di Padova
    • , A. MeregagliaAffiliated withINR-RASIPHC
    • , M. T. MuciacciaAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Bari, INFNUniversità di Bari
    • , D. NaumovAffiliated withINR-RASJINR
    • , A. OlshevskyAffiliated withINR-RASJINR
    • , A. PaoloniAffiliated withINFN-LNF
    • , A. PastoreAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Bari, INFN
    • , L. PatriziiAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , M. PozzatoAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , F. PupilliAffiliated withINFN-LNGS
    • , G. RosaAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di RomaSezione di Roma, INFN
    • , I. RostovtsevaAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNITEP
    • , A. RussoAffiliated withSezione di Napoli, INFN
    • , O. RyazhskayaAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , A. SchembriAffiliated withINFN-LNGS
    • , I. ShakirianovaAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , A. SheshukovAffiliated withSezione di Napoli, INFN
    • , S. SimoneAffiliated withINR-RASSezione di Bari, INFNUniversità di Bari
    • , M. SioliAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , C. SirignanoAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFNUniversità di Padova
    • , G. SirriAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFN
    • , M. SpinettiAffiliated withINFN-LNF
    • , L. StancoAffiliated withSezione di Padova, INFN
    • , M. StipcevicAffiliated withINR-RASIRB
    • , M. TentiAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNUniversità di Bologna
    • , F. TerranovaAffiliated withINR-RASINFN-LNFSezione di Milano, INFN
    • , V. TioukovAffiliated withSezione di Napoli, INFN
    • , L. VotanoAffiliated withINFN-LNFINFN-LNGS
    • , B. WonsakAffiliated withINR-RASHamburg University
    • , V. YakushevAffiliated withINR-RAS
    • , Y. ZaitsevAffiliated withSezione di Bologna, INFNITEP
    • , S. ZemskovaAffiliated withINR-RASJINR

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Abstract

The purpose of this work is to report the measurement of a time-shift in the OPERA set-up in a way totally independent of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) measurements of CNGS neutrino events and without the need to know the distance between the two laboratories, CERN and LNGS, where the neutrinos are produced and detected, respectively. The LVD and OPERA experiments are both installed in the same laboratory: LNGS. The relative position of the two detectors, separated by an average distance of ∼ 160 m, allows the use of very high-energy horizontal muons to cross-calibrate the timing systems of the two detectors, using a TOF technique, which, as stated above, is totally independent of the TOF of CNGS neutrino events. Indeed, the OPERA-LVD direction lies along the so-called “Teramo anomaly”, a region in the Gran Sasso massif where LVD has established, many years ago, the existence of an anomaly in the mountain structure, which exhibits a low m.w.e. thickness for horizontal directions. The “abundant” high-energy horizontal muons (nearly 100 per year) going through LVD and OPERA exist because of this anomaly in the mountain orography. The total live time of the data in coincidence between the two experiments correspond to 1200 days from mid 2007 until March 2012. The time coincidence study of LVD and OPERA detectors is based on 306 cosmic-horizontal-muon events and shows the existence of a negative time-shift in the OPERA set-up of the order of Δt AB = −(73 ± 9) when two calendar periods, A and B, are compared. The first, A, goes from August 2007 to August 2008 plus the period from January 2012 to March 2012; the second period, B, goes from August 2008 to December 2011. This result shows a systematic effect in the OPERA timing system present from August 2008 until December 2011. The size of the effect, in terms of the cosmic horizontal muons TOF, is comparable with the neutrino velocity excess recently measured by OPERA. It is probably interesting not to forget that with the MRPC technology developed by the ALICE Bologna group the TOF world record accuracy of 20 ps was reached. This technology can be implemented at LNGS for a high-precision determination of TOF with the CNGS neutrino beams. If new experiments are needed for the study of neutrino velocities they must be able to detect effects an order of magnitude smaller than the value of the OPERA systematic effect.