We propose methods for the unambiguous discrimination of quantum states encoded in the spatial profile of light modes, in particular in the orbital angular momentum of light. Perfect discrimination between quantum states is possible only between orthogonal states of a known basis system. Generalised measurement strategies have been developed for the distinction between non-orthogonal states in a two-dimensional state space, e.g. the polarisation of light. Here we consider information encoded in superpositions of orbital angular momentum states of light, defined within an infinite-dimensional state space. Generalised measurements will be an important addition to quantum communication in high-dimensional spaces.
Topical issue: High Dimensional Quantum Entanglement. Guest editors: Sonja Franke-Arnold, Alessandra Gatti and Nicolas Treps