, Volume 90, Issue 2, pp 163-184

Intraspecific variation of thermal reaction norms for development in insects: New approaches and prospects

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Abstract

The main parameters (thermal constants) characterizing the effects of constant temperatures on the duration and rate of development in ectotherms are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of the linear and nonlinear models describing the dependence of the development rate on temperature are discussed. The main patterns of interspecific variation of thermal constants in insects are described. The development of new ideas in the study of intraspecific variation of thermal reaction norms for development in insects is examined. The discrepancies in the data and their interpretation in this field are shown to result mostly from using the traditional methods of determining thermal constants. According to this method, the development rates calculated as reciprocals of the mean development times at each experimental temperature are used for regression analysis. The standard errors calculated according to this method are usually too large. Instead, a fundamentally new method is employed by the authors, according to which the individual development rates calculated for each individual are used for regression analysis of the reciprocals of the mean development times. This method reduces the standard errors of thermal constants by about an order and reveals significant differences between populations and other groups of insects. New data on intraspecific variation of the thermal reaction norms for development in Myrmica ants, the linden bug Pyrrhocoris apterus, and Calliphora blowflies are briefly described and discussed. The possible adaptive significance of these forms of intraspecific variation is discussed. The prospects of research in this new field are outlined.

Original Russian Text © V.E. Kipyatkov, E.B. Lopatina, 2010, published in Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 2010, Vol. 89, No. 1, pp. 33–61.