Human Physiology

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 656–664

Towards a question of formation mechanisms of muscular hand dystonia

  • O. A. Shavlovskaya

DOI: 10.1134/S0362119712060126

Cite this article as:
Shavlovskaya, O.A. Hum Physiol (2012) 38: 656. doi:10.1134/S0362119712060126


Studies on the mechanisms of hand muscle dystonia, as exemplified by writer’s cramp (WC). WC is a specific movement disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to abnormal posture during selective motor activity, including skilled repetitive movements. WC pathophysiology remains obscure. Incomplete inhibition at various levels of the sensorimotor system is assumed to be a major mechanism of muscle dystonia. The following approaches are used for studying WC muscle dystonia: genetic and neurophysiologic examinations (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS; evoked motor potentials, EMP); and the methods of neuroimaging (functional MRI, positron emission tomography, PET; and three-dimensional kinematic analysis).


movement disordersdystoniafocal hand dystoniatask-specific hand dystoniawriter’s cramphand movement

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • O. A. Shavlovskaya
    • 1
  1. 1.Sechenov Moscow Medical AcademyMoscowRussia