Review

Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 19-36

First online:

Keap1/Nrf2/ARE redox-sensitive signaling system as a pharmacological target

  • N. K. ZenkovAffiliated withScientific Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
  • , E. B. MenshchikovaAffiliated withScientific Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Email author 
  • , V. O. TkachevAffiliated withScientific Center of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical SciencesUniversity of Michigan School of Medicine

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Abstract

The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and proapoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Here we review the basic regulatory mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, key targets for pharmacological intervention, and interconnection of this system with other redox-sensitive transcriptional factors. We also discuss the range of currently available pharmaceuticals. Finally, we promote “indirect” antioxidants as a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of wide range of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Key words

Nrf2 antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) transcription factors pharmaceuticals