, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 8-18
Date: 23 Jan 2013

Insulin resistance and adipogenesis: Role of transcription and secreted factors

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Abstract

Insulin stimulates carbohydrate uptake by cells and induces their conversion into lipids as a more efficient form of energy storage. Insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in glucose uptake by muscle and adipose cells and also with a decrease in glycogen synthesis on retention of glucose synthesis by liver cells. Disorders in the insulin signaling cascade on development of insulin resistance can be caused by both changes in functioning of transcriptional factors and in the secretion profile of hormone-like substances. Diacylglycerols and ceramides responsible for activation of some kinases and phosphatases can directly trigger these changes in muscle and liver cells. In adipose tissue, insulin mainly stimulates adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) and lipogenesis (lipid accumulation in the cells). Thus, studies on the action mechanisms of factors influencing adipogenesis can be of help for understanding the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance.

Original Russian Text © D. N. Penkov, A. D. Egorov, M. N. Mozgovaya, V. A. Tkachuk, 2013, published in Biokhimiya, 2013, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 14–26.