Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 77, Issue 7, pp 761-775

First online:

Phenoptosis in yeasts

  • E. I. SukhanovaAffiliated withBach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • , A. G. RogovAffiliated withBach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • , F. F. SeverinAffiliated withBelozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
  • , R. A. ZvyagilskayaAffiliated withBach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences Email author 

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The current view on phenoptosis and apoptosis as genetic programs aimed at eliminating potentially dangerous organisms and cells, respectively, is given. Special emphasis is placed on apoptosis (phenoptosis) in yeasts: intracellular defects and a plethora of external stimuli inducing apoptosis in yeasts; distinctive morphological and biochemical hallmarks accompanying apoptosis in yeasts; pro- and antiapoptotic factors involved in yeast apoptosis signaling; consecutive stages of apoptosis from external stimulus to the cell death; a prominent role of mitochondria and other organelles in yeast apoptosis; possible pathways for release of apoptotic factors from the intermembrane mitochondrial space into the cytosol are described. Using some concrete examples, the obvious physiological importance and expediency of altruistic death of yeast cells is shown. Poorly known aspects of yeast apoptosis and prospects for yeast apoptosis study are defined.

Key words

yeasts phenoptosis apoptosis mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum vacuole