Meridional energy flux in the Arctic from data of the radiosonde archive IGRA
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The meridional energy transport into high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere is an important climate-forming factor in the Arctic. This work presents the results of calculating the meridional energy flux across 70° N based on the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) data from the radio sounding of the atmosphere. The long-term mean energy flux over the period 1992–2007 in the layer from the Earth’s surface to 30 hPa is 70.6 W m−2. The fraction of the sensible heat flux is 23.2 W m−2, i.e., 33% of the total energy flux; the fraction of the latent heat flux is 28.0 W m−2 (40% of the total energy flux); the fraction of the potential energy is 20.0 W m−2 (27%); and the fraction of the kinetic energy is 0.53 W m−2, i.e., less than 1% of the total energy flux. The vertical structure of the flux shows that the main energy transport into the Arctic takes place in the middle troposphere-lower stratosphere layer, whereas the energy is transported mainly out of the Arctic in the lower troposphere, which agrees well with the schematic notion about the polar circulation cell. The spatial structure of the flux shows that the key regions with a positive (directed into the Arctic) energy flux are located in the vicinity of 160° E (the northwestern part of Eurasia, Pacific sector) and 50° W (Greenland sector). The regions with a negative (directed out of the Arctic) energy flux are located near 120° W (Canadian Arctic Archipelago) and from 20° E to 90° E (Atlantic sector). In the period from 1992 to 2007, the meridional energy transport into the Arctic weakened by −0.26 W m−2 yr−1. The changes were mutually correlated; namely, positive and negative energy fluxes weakened in amplitude, almost without changing their locations.
- N. Nakamura and A. H. Oort, “Atmospheric Heat Budgets of the Polar Regions,” J. Geophys. Res. 93(D8), 9510–9524 (1988). CrossRef
- J. E. Overland and P. Turet, “Variability of the Atmospheric Energy Flux across 70° N Computed from the GFDL Data Set,” Nansen Centennial Volume. Geophys. Monogr. American Geophys. Union, No. 84, 313–325 (1994).
- J. E. Overland, P. Turet, and A. H. Oort, “Regional Variations of Moist Static Energy Flux into the Arctic,” J. Clim. 9(1), 54–65 (1996). CrossRef
- K. E. Trenberth and D. P. Stepaniak, “Co-Variability of Components of Poleward Atmospheric Energy Transports on Seasonal and Interannual Timescales,” J. Clim. 16, 3691–3705 (2003). CrossRef
- T. Semmler, D. Jacob, K. H. Schlunzen, et al., “The Water and Energy Budget of the Arctic Atmosphere,” J. Clim. 18(13), 2515–2530 (2005). CrossRef
- M. C. Serreze, A. P. Barrett, A. G. Slater, et al., “The Large-Scale Energy Budget of the Arctic,” J. Geophys. Res. 112(D11122) (2007). doi: 10.1029/2006Jd008230.
- A. A. Vinogradova, “Meridional Mass and Energy Fluxes in the Vicinity of the Arctic Border,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 43(3), 281–293 (2007). CrossRef
- L. H. Smedsrud, A. Sorteberg, and K. Kloster, “Recent and Future Changes of the Arctic Sea Ice Cover,” Geophys. Rev. Lett. 35 (2008). doi: 10.1029/2008GL034813.
- M. C. Serreze and R. G. Barry, The Arctic Climate System (UK, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005). CrossRef
- E. Van der Swaluw, S. Drijfhout, and W. Hazeleger, “Bjerknes Compensation at High Northern Latitudes: The Ocean Forcing the Atmosphere,” J. Clim. 20, 6023–6032 (2007). CrossRef
- D. W. J. Thompson and J. M. Wallace, “The Arctic Oscillation Signature in the Wintertime Geopotential Height and Temperature Fields,” Geophys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1297–1300 (1998). CrossRef
- R. Quadrelli and J. M. Wallace, “A Simplified Linear Framework for Interpreting Patterns of Northern Hemisphere Wintertime Climate Variability,” J. Clim. 17, 3728–3744 (2004). CrossRef
- M. Tsukernik, T. N. Chase, M. C. Serreze, et al., “On the Regulation of Minimum Mid-Tropospheric Temperatures in the Arctic,” Geophys. Rev. Lett. 31, L06112 (2004). doi: 10.1029/2003GL018831. CrossRef
- R. G. Graversen, T. Mauritsen, M. Tjernstrom, et al., “Vertical Structure of Recent Arctic Warming,” Nature 541, 53–57 (2008). CrossRef
- V. A. Alexeev, I. Esau, I. V. Polyakov, et al., “Vertical Structure of Recent Arctic Warming from Observed Data and Reanalysis Products,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 11, EGU2009–11755 (2009).
- J. Bjerknes, “Atlantic Air-Sea Interaction,” Adv. Geophys. 10, 1–82 (1964). CrossRef
- L. Shaffrey and R. Sutton, “Bjerknes Compensation and the Decadal Variability of the Energy Transports in a Coupled Climate Model,” J. Clim. 19(7), 1167–1181 (2006). CrossRef
- J. H. Jungclaus and T. Koenigk, “Low-Frequency Variability of the Arctic Climate: The Role of Oceanic and Atmospheric Heat Transport Variations,” Clim. Dyn. 34, 265–279 (2010). CrossRef
- D. J. Gaffen, “A Digitized Metadataset of Global Upper-Air Station Histories,” NOAA. Technical Memorandum ERL-ARL, 211.
- Kalnay, et al., “The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 77 437–470 (1996). CrossRef
- J. L. Cohen, D. A. Salstein, and R. D. Rosen, “Interannual Variability in the Meridional Transport of Water Vapour,” J. Hydromet. 1, 547–553 (2000). CrossRef
- R. I. Cullather, D. H. Bromwich, and M. C. Serreze, “The Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle over the Arctic from Reanalyses. Part I. Comparison with Observations and Previous Studies,” J. Clim. 13, 923–937 (2000). CrossRef
- M. Gober, R. Hagenbrock, F. Ament, et al., “Comparing Mass-Consistent Atmospheric Moisture Budgets on an Irregular Grid: An Arctic Example,” Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc. 129, 2383–2400 (2003). CrossRef
- “Impacts of a Warming Arctic,” in Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004).
- S. Kuzmina, O. M. Johannessen, L. Bengtsson, et al., High Northern Latitude Surface Air Temperature: Comparison of Existing Data and Creation of a New Gridded Dataset 1900–2000, SCAR/IASC IPY Open Science Conf (Russia, St. Petersburg, 2008).
- M. C. Serreze, A. P. Barrett, J. C. Stroeve, et al., “The Emergence of Surface-Based Arctic Amplification,” Cryosphere 3, 11–19 (2009). CrossRef
- C. Deser, R. Tomas, M. Alexander, et al., “The Seasonal Atmospheric Response to Projected Arctic Sea Ice Loss in the Late Twenty-First Century,” J. Clim. 23(2), 333–351 (2010). CrossRef
- P. L. Langen and V. A. Alexeev, “Polar Amplification as a Preferred Response in an Aquaplanet GCM,” Clim. Dyn. 29(2–3), 305–317 (2007). CrossRef
- V. A. Alexeev, R. L. Langen, and J. R. Bates, “Polar Amplification of Surface Warming on an Aquaplanet in Ghost Forcing Experiments without Sea Ice Feed backs,” Climate Dynam. 24(7–8), 2005.
- Meridional energy flux in the Arctic from data of the radiosonde archive IGRA
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
Volume 47, Issue 5 , pp 572-583
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- SP MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica
- Additional Links
- dynamics of the atmosphere
- meridional transport
- the Arctic