Influence of illumination conditions on the sea-bottom visibility
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Statistical models of the useful and background signals forming an image of the sea bottom observed through a rough sea surface are constructed. The methods for estimating the signal-to-noise ratio in the image of the bottom with the test distribution of the reflectance are described. The dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio on observational conditions, in particular, on the mutual orientation of the directions of sighting, wind, and solar vertical, is analyzed. Recommendations on the choice of optimal conditions for bottom observations from airborne carriers are given.
- Yu-A. Mullamaa R, “Effect of a Rough Sea Surface on the Visibility of Submerged Objects,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 11, 199–205 (1975).
- A. G. Luchinin, “Some Regularities in Shelf Imaging during Its Observation through a Rough Sea Surface,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 17, 732–735 (1981).
- V. L. Veber and A. G. Luchinin, “On the Variance of Fluctuations in Images Observed through a Rough Surface,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 19, 631–638 (1983).
- E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, and A. S. Prikhach, “Visual Range of Submerged Objects,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 5, 789–811 (1992).
- V. L. Veber, “On the Effect of Sea Waves on the Quality of an Image Observed through the Rough Surface,” Opt. Atmos. Okeana 5, 869–875 (1992).
- A. G. Luchinin, “Basic Principles of Imaging Underwater Objects Observed through a Rough Surface,” Izv. Akad. Nauk, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 32, 296–302 (1996) [Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 32, 273–279 (1996)].
- L. S. Dolin and I. M. Levin, Handbook on the Theory of Underwater Imaging (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1991) [in Russian].
- K. S. Shifrin and N. P. Pyatovskaya, Tables of the Oblique Visual Range and Radiance of the Daytime Sky (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1959) [in Russian].
- W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A Proposed Spectral Form for Fully-Developed Wind Seas Based on the Similarity Theory of S.A. Kitaygorodsky,” J. Geophys. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
- Rierson, W.J., G. Neumann, and R.W. James, Practical Methods for Observing and Forecasting Ocean Waves by Means of Waves Spectra and Statistics (U.S. Naval Hydrographic Office, 1955), Publ. N603. Cited from S. R. Massel, Ocean Surface Waves: Their Physics and Prediction (Advanced Series on Ocean Engineering, World Scientific, 1996), Vol. 11.
- D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskii, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and V. A. Savels’ev, “On the Structure of a Narrow Light Beam in Seawater,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 5, 160–167 (1969).
- A. G. Luchinin, “Effect of Wind Waves on the Characteristics of the Light Field Backscattered by the Bottom and Bulk of Water,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 15, 770–775 (1978).
- V. L. Veber and I. A. Sergievskaya, “Effect of Backscattering Enhancement during Aerospace Laser Sounding of the Bulk of the Sea through Its Rough Surface,” Izv. Akad. Nauk, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 28, 325–333 (1992).
- A. F. Bunkin, D. V. Vlasov, and D. M. Mirkamilov, Physical Foundations of the Laser Aerosounding of the Earths’s Surface (Fan, UzSSR, Tashkent, 1987) [in Russian].
- V. L. Veber and A. G. Luchinin, “Influence of Correlation Effects on Characteristics of Bottom Imaging through the Rough Surface of a Body of Water,” Izv. Akad. Nauk, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 37, 257–264 (2001) [Izv., Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 37, 239–246 (2001)].
- A. G. Luchinin, “Interpretation of the Spectra of Aerial Photos of the Sea Surface,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 20, 331–334 (1984).
- D. M. Bravo-Zhivotovskii, L. S. Dolin, A. G. Luchinin, and V. A. Savels’ev, “Problems of the Theory of Imaging in Turbid Media,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana 5, 672–684 (1969).
- C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the Sea Surface Derived from Sun Glitter,” J. Mar. Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).
- Influence of illumination conditions on the sea-bottom visibility
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics
Volume 42, Issue 1 , pp 115-123
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. SPAWAR System Center, San Diego, CA, USA
- 2. Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Uls’yanova 46, Nizhni Novgorod, 603950, Russia
- 3. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, St. Petersburg Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vasils’evskii ostrov, Pervaya liniya 30, St. Petersburg, 199053, Russia