Piezoelectricity in crystallizing ferroelectric polymers: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its copolymers (A review)
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- Kochervinskii, V.V. Crystallogr. Rep. (2003) 48: 649. doi:10.1134/1.1595194
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The piezoelectricity observed in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and its copolymers involves three components that are associated with the presence of at least two phases (crystalline and amorphous) in the polymer structure. The main contributions to the phenomenon observed are made by the size effect and electrostriction, which are related to each other. These contributions manifest themselves through the mechanism of strain-induced reversible transformations of a number of domains of the anisotropic amorphous phase into the crystalline state under the action of mechanical or electrical fields. With due regard for different packings of chains in the amorphous and crystalline phases, this mechanism accounts for the large Poisson ratios μ31 obtained for textured films of flexible-chain crystallizing polymers. The dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient d32 on the static stress in textured films is governed by the change in the fraction of the crystalline phase due to strong anisotropy of the elastic constants in the film plane. It is shown that the shear deformations of polymers are characterized by a strong piezoelectric response. The specific features revealed in the piezoelectric effect under bending deformations are described for films with an inhomogeneous distribution of polarization over the cross section. The general regularities of the electrostriction in the polymers and inorganic relaxor ferroelectrics studied are considered.