Oxygen Tension Imaging in the Mouse Retina
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
A newly developed microscope-based imaging system was used to measure the oxygen tension (PO2) inside the retinal and choroidal vessels of mice and to generate in vivo maps of retinal PO2. These maps were generated from the phosphorescence lifetimes of an injected palladium–porphyrin compound using a frequency-domain measurement. The system was fully calibrated and used to produce retinal PO2 maps at different inspiratory oxygen fractions. PO2 rose accordingly and predictably as inspiratory O2 was stepped from hypoxic to hyperoxic conditions. Important experimental and acquisition parameters necessary for applying phosphorescence lifetime imaging to the mouse eye were investigated, including camera exposure and intensifier gain settings. Because of a need to limit light exposure to the retina, PO2 map quality as measured by the coefficient of determination was investigated as a function of signal-to-noise and accumulated excitation energy deposition. With the development of this technology for use in mice, the potential for investigating the oxygen dynamics in genetically engineered mouse models of retinal disease, including diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration, is advanced. © 2003 Biomedical Engineering Society.
PAC2003: 4266Ew, 8763Lk, 8719Dd
- Alder, V. A., S. J. Cringle, and I. J. Constable. The retinal oxygen profile in cats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.24:30–36, 1983.
- Alder, V. A., E.-N. Su, D.-Y. Yu, S. J. Cringle, and P. K. Yu. Diabetic retinopathy: Early functional changes. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.24:785–788, 1997.
- Alm, A., and A. Bill. The oxygen supply to the retina. I. Effects of changes in intraocular and arterial blood pressures, and in arterial pO2 and pCO2 on the oxygen tension in the vitreous body of the cat. Acta Physiol. Scand.84:261–274, 1972.
- Amin, R. H., R. N. Frank, A. Kennedy, D. Elliot, J. E. Pulkin, and G. W. Abrams. Vascular endothelial growth factor is present in glial cells of the retina and optic nerve of human subjects with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.38:2729–2741, 1997.
- Beach, J. M., K. J. Schwenzer, S. Srinivas, D. Kim, and J. S. Tiedeman. Oximetry of retinal vessels by dual-wavelength imaging: Calibration and influence of pigmentation. J. Appl. Physiol.86:748–758, 1999.
- Berkowitz, B. A., and C. A. Wilson. Quantitative mapping of ocular oxygenation using magnetic resonance imaging. Magn. Reson. Med.33:579–581, 1995.
- Berkowitz, B. A., C. A. Wilson, and D. L. Hatchell. Oxygen kinetics in the vitreous substitute perfluorotributylamine: A 19F-NMR study. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.32:2382–2387, 1991.
- Bonhoeffer, T., and A. Grinvald. Optical imaging based on intrinsic signals: The methodology. In: Brain Mapping: The Methods, edited by A. W. Toga and J. C. Mazziotta. San Diego: Academic, 1996, pp. 55–97.
- Buerk, D. G., R. D. Shonat, C. E. Riva, and S. D. Cranstoun. O2 gradients and countercurrent exchange in the vitreous humor near retinal arterioles and venules. Microvasc. Res.45:134–148, 1993.
- Buxton, R. B. Commentary: The elusive initial dip. Neuroimage13:953–958, 2001.
- Campochiaro, P. A. Retinal and choroidal neovascularization. J. Cell Physiol.184:301–310, 2000.
- Crittin, M., H. Schmidt, and C. E. Riva. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) in the human ocular fundus measured by reflectance oximetry: Preliminary data in retinal veins. Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd.219:289–291, 2002.
- Duong, T. Q., S.-C. Ngan, K. Ugurbil, and S.-G. Kim. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the retina. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.43:1176–1181, 2002.
- Golub, A. S., and R. N. Pittman. Recovery of radial pO2 profiles from phosphorescence quenching measurements in microvessels. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A132:169–176, 2002.
- Golub, A. S., A. S. Popel, L. Zheng, and R. N. Pittman. Analysis of phosphorescence decay in heterogeneous systems: Consequences of finite excitation flash duration. Photochem. Photobiol.69:624–632, 1999.
- Hayreh, S. S. The pathogenesis of optic nerve lesions in glaucoma. Trans. Am. Acad. Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol.81:OP-197–OP-213, 1976.
- Kim, D.-S., T. Q. Duong, and S.-G. Kim. High-resolution mapping of iso-orientation columns by fMRI. Nature Neuroscience3:164–169, 2000.
- Lakowicz, J. R., and K. W. Berndt. Lifetime-selective fluorescence imaging using a rf phase-sensitive camera. Rev. Sci. Instrum.62:1727–1734, 1991.
- Lakowicz, J. R., H. Szmacinski, K. Nowaczyk, K. W. Berndt, and M. Johnson. Fluorescence lifetime imaging. Anal. Biochem.202:316–330, 1992.
- Lanni, F., and T. Wilson. Grating image systems for optical sectioning fluorescence microscopy of cells, tissues, and small organisms. In: Imaging Neurons: A Laboratory Manual, edited by R. Yuste, F. Lanni, and A. Konnerth. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2000, pp. 8.1–8.9.
- Linsenmeier, R. A.Effects of light and darkness on oxygen distribution and consumption in the cat retina. J. Gen. Physiol.88:521–542, 1986.
- Linsenmeier, R. A., R. D. Braun, M. A. McRipley, L. B. Padnick, J. Ahmed, D. L. Hatchell, D. S. McLeod, and G. A. Lutty. Retinal hypoxia in long-term diabetic cats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.39:1647–1657, 1998.
- Lo, L.-W., C. J. Koch, and D. F. Wilson. Calibration of oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of Pd-meso-tetra (4–carboxyphenyl) porphine: A phosphor with general application for measuring oxygen concentration in biological systems. Anal. Biochem.236:153–160, 1996.
- Lutty, G. A., D. S. McLeod, C. Merges, A. Diggs, and J. Plouet. Localization of VEGF in human retina and choroid. Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)114:971–977, 1996.
- Patz, A.Current concepts of the effect of oxygen on the developing retina. Curr. Eye Res.3:159–163, 1984.
- Riva, C. E., S. D. Cranstoun, R. M. Mann, and G. E. Barnes. Local choroidal blood flow in the cat by laser Dopper flowmetry. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.35:608–618, 1994.
- Riva, C. E., G. T. Feke, B. Eberli, and V. Benary. Bidirectional LDV system for absolute measurement of blood speed in retinal vessels. Appl. Opt.18:2302–2306, 1979.
- Riva, C. E., C. J. Pournaras, and M. Tsacopoulos. Regulation of local oxygen tension and blood flow in the inner retina during hyperoxia. J. Appl. Physiol.61:592–598, 1986.
- Rumsey, W. L., M. Pawlowski, N. Lejavardi, and D. F. Wilson. Oxygen pressure distribution in the heart in vivo and evaluation of the ischemic “border zone.” Am. J. Physiol.266:H1676–H1680, 1994.
- Sakaue, H., Y. Tsukahara, A. Negi, N. Ogino, and Y. Honda. Measurement of vitreous oxygen tension in human eyes. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.33:199–203, 1989.
- Schwartz, B., J. C. Rieser, and S. L. Fishbein. Fluorescein angiographic defects of the optic disc in glaucoma. Arch. Ophthalmol. (Chicago)95:1961–1974, 1977.
- Shonat, R. D., and P. C. Johnson. Oxygen tension gradients and heterogeneity in the venous microcirculation: A phosphorescence quenching study. Am. J. Physiol.272:H2233–H2240, 1997.
- Shonat, R. D., E. S. Wachman, W.-H. Niu, A. P. Koretsky, and D. L. Farkas. Near-simultaneous hemoglobin saturation and oxygen tension maps in mouse brain using an AOTF microscope. Biophys. J.73:1223–1231, 1997.
- Shonat, R. D., D. F. Wilson, C. E. Riva, and S. D. Cranstoun. Effect of acute increases in intraocular pressure on intravascular optic nerve head oxygen tension in cats. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.33:3174–3180, 1992.
- Shonat, R. D., D. F. Wilson, C. E. Riva, and M. Pawlowski. Oxygen distribution in the retinal and choroidal vessels of the cat as measured by a new phosphorescence imaging method. Appl. Opt.31:3711–3718, 1992.
- Silva, A. C., S.-P. Lee, C. Iadecola, and S.-G. Kim. Early temporal characteristics of cerebral blood flow and deoxyhemoglobin changes during somatosensory stimulation. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.20:201–206, 2000.
- Sinaasappel, M., and C. Ince. Calibration of Pd–porphyrin phosphorescence for oxygen concentration measurements. J. Appl. Physiol.81:2297–2303, 1996.
- Smith, L. E. H., E. Wesolowski, A. McLellan, S. K. Kostyk, R. D'Amato, R. Sullivan, and P. A. D'Amore. Oxygen-induced retinopathy in the mouse. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.35:101–111, 1994.
- Stefánsson, E.Oxygen and diabetic eye disease. Graefe's Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.228:120–123, 1990.
- Stefánsson, E., R. Machemer, E. de Juan, Jr., B. W. McCuen, and J. Peterson. Retinal oxygenation and laser treatment in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Am. J. Ophthalmol.113:36–38, 1992.
- Terauchi, Y., H. Sakura, K. Yasuda, K. Iwamoto, N. Takahashi, K. Ito, H. Kasai, H. Suzuki, O. Ueda, and N. Kamada. Pancreatic-β cell specific targeted disruption of glucokinase gene: Diabetes mellitus due to defective insulin secretion to glucose. J. Biol. Chem.268:30253–30256, 1995.
- Vanderkooi, J. M., G. Maniara, T. J. Green, and D. F. Wilson. An optical method for measurement of dioxygen concentration based upon quenching of phosphorescence. J. Biol. Chem.252:5476–5482, 1987.
- Vanzetta, I., and A. Grinvald. Commentary: Evidence and lack of evidence for the initial dip in the anesthetized rat: Implications for human functional brain imaging. Neuroimage13:959–967, 2001.
- Vinogradov, S. A., L.-W. Lo, W. T. Jenkins, S. M. Evans, C. J. Koch, and D. F. Wilson. Noninvasive imaging of the distribution in oxygen in tissue using near-infrared phosphors. Biophys. J.70:1609–1617, 1996.
- Wilson, D. F., A. Pastuszko, J. E. DiGiacomo, M. Pawlowski, R. Schneiderman, and M. Delivoria-Papadopoulos. Effect of hyperventilation on oxygenation of the brain cortex of newborn piglets. J. Appl. Physiol.70:2691–2696, 1991.
- Withers, D. J., J. S. Gutierrez, H. Towery, D. J. Burks, J.-M. Ren, S. Previs, Y. Zhang, D. Bernal, S. Pons, G. I. Shulman, S. Bonner-Weir, and M. F. White. Disruption of the IRS-2 causes type 2 diabetes in mice. Nature (London)391:900–904, 1998.
- Yu, D.-Y., S. J. Cringle, V. A. Alder, and E.-N. Su. Intraretinal oxygen distribution in the rat with graded systemic hyperoxia and hypercapnia. Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.40:2082–2087, 1999.
- Zarbin, M. A.Age-related macular degeneration: Review of pathogenesis. Eur. J. Ophthalmol.8:199–206, 1998.
- Oxygen Tension Imaging in the Mouse Retina
Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Volume 31, Issue 9 , pp 1084-1096
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Phosphorescence lifetime
- Phosphorescence quenching
- Phase-sensitive detection
- Palladium-porphyrin compound
- Industry Sectors