Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 31, Issue 7, pp 823–839

Preliminary Model of Fluid and Solute Distribution and Transport During Hemorrhage


  • C. C. Gyenge
    • Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Bergen
  • B. D. Bowen
    • Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of British Columbia
  • R. K. Reed
    • Department of PhysiologyUniversity of Bergen
  • J. L. Bert
    • Department of Chemical and Biological EngineeringUniversity of British Columbia

DOI: 10.1114/1.1581878

Cite this article as:
Gyenge, C.C., Bowen, B.D., Reed, R.K. et al. Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2003) 31: 823. doi:10.1114/1.1581878


The distribution and transport of fluid, ions, and other solutes (plasma proteins and glucose) are described in a mathematical model of unresuscitated hemorrhage. The model is based on balances of each material in both the circulation and its red blood cells, as well as in a whole-body tissue compartment along with its cells. Exchange between these four compartments occurs by a number of different mechanisms. The hemorrhage model has as its basis a validated model, due to Gyenge et al.,18 of fluid and solute exchange in the whole body of a standard human. Hypothetical but physiologically based features such as glucose and small ion releases along with cell membrane changes are incorporated into the hemorrhage model to describe the system behavior, particularly during larger hemorrhages. Moderate (10%–30% blood volume loss) and large (>30% blood loss) hemorrhage dynamics are simulated and compared with available data. The model predictions compare well with the available information for both types of hemorrhages and provide a reasonable description of the progression of a large hemorrhage from the compensatory phase through vascular collapse. © 2003 Biomedical Engineering Society.

PAC2003: 8710+e, 8719Uv

HemorrhageMathematical modelGlucose releaseSmall solute releaseBlood volume restitutionPlasma osmolarity

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© Biomedical Engineering Society 2003