Article

Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 31, Issue 7, pp 879-890

First online:

Criteria for the Selection of Materials for Implanted Electrodes

  • L. A. GeddesAffiliated withPurdue University, Department of Biomedical Engineering
  • , R. RoederAffiliated withPurdue University, Department of Biomedical Engineering

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Abstract

There are four criteria that must be considered when choosing material for an implanted electrode: (1) tissue response, (2) allergic response, (3) electrode-tissue impedance, and (4) radiographic visibility. This paper discusses these four criteria and identifies the materials that are the best candidates for such electrodes. For electrodes that make ohmic contact with tissues: gold, platinum, platinum–iridium, tungsten, and tantalum are good candidates. The preferred insulating materials are polyimide and glass. The characteristics of stimulator output circuits and the importance of the bidirectional wave- form in relation to electrode decomposition are discussed. The paper concludes with an analysis, the design criteria, and the special properties and materials for capacitive recording and stimulating electrodes. © 2003 Biomedical Engineering Society.

PAC2003: 8754Dt, 8780Fe, 8768+z, 8719Nn

Implanted electrodes Microelectrodes Stimulating electrodes Electrode arrays Electrodes