Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 31, Issue 7, pp 879–890

Criteria for the Selection of Materials for Implanted Electrodes

  • L. A. Geddes
  • R. Roeder

DOI: 10.1114/1.1581292

Cite this article as:
Geddes, L.A. & Roeder, R. Annals of Biomedical Engineering (2003) 31: 879. doi:10.1114/1.1581292


There are four criteria that must be considered when choosing material for an implanted electrode: (1) tissue response, (2) allergic response, (3) electrode-tissue impedance, and (4) radiographic visibility. This paper discusses these four criteria and identifies the materials that are the best candidates for such electrodes. For electrodes that make ohmic contact with tissues: gold, platinum, platinum–iridium, tungsten, and tantalum are good candidates. The preferred insulating materials are polyimide and glass. The characteristics of stimulator output circuits and the importance of the bidirectional wave- form in relation to electrode decomposition are discussed. The paper concludes with an analysis, the design criteria, and the special properties and materials for capacitive recording and stimulating electrodes. © 2003 Biomedical Engineering Society.

PAC2003: 8754Dt, 8780Fe, 8768+z, 8719Nn

Implanted electrodesMicroelectrodesStimulating electrodesElectrode arraysElectrodes

Copyright information

© Biomedical Engineering Society 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Geddes
    • 1
  • R. Roeder
    • 1
  1. 1.Purdue UniversityDepartment of Biomedical EngineeringWest Lafayette