Aronson, S., and L. A. Geddes. Electrode potential stability. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.32:85, 1987.
Babb, T. L., and W. Kupfer. Phagocytic and metabolic reactions to chronically implanted metal brain electrodes. Exp. Neurol.86:171–184, 1984.
Barranco, V. P., and H. Soloman. Eczematous dermatitis in nickel. J. Am. Med. Assoc.110:1244, 1972.
Batrow, J., and P. Batrow. Electro-physiotherapy apparatus. US Patent No. 3,077,884 (19 Feb. 1963).
Brummer, S. B., and M. J. Turner. Electrochemical considerations for safe electrical stimulation of the nervous system with platinum electrodes. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.24:59–63, 1977.
Brummer, S. B., and L. S. Robblee. Criteria for selecting electrodes for electrical stimulation: Theoretical and practical. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.0077/8923:159–170, 1983.
Campbell, P. K., K. F. Jones, R. J. Huber, K. W. Horch, and R. A. Normann. A silicon-based, three-dimensional neural interface. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.38:758–768, 1991.
Collias, J. C., and E. E. Manuelidis. Histopathological changes produced by implanted electrodes in cat brains. J. Neurosurg.14:302–328, 1957.
Dodge, H. W., C. Petersen, C. W. Sem-Jacobsen, P. Sayre, and R. G. Bickford. The paucity of demonstrable brain damage following intracerebral electrography: Report of a case. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin.30:215–221, 1955.
Dymond, A. M., L. E. Kaechele, J. M. Jurist, and P. H. Crandall. Brain tissue reaction to some chronically implanted metals. J. Neurosurg.33:574–580, 1970.
Fischer, G., G. P. Sayre, and R. G. Bickford. Histologic changes in the cat's brain after introduction of metallic and plastic coated wire used in electroencephalography. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin.32:14–22, 1957.
Geddes, L. A., and R. Roeder. Measurement of the direct-current (Faradic) resistance of the electrode-electrolyte interface. Ann. Biomed. Eng.29:181–186, 2001.
Geddes, L. A., C. P. DaCosta, and G. Wise. The impedance of stainless-steel electrodes. Med. Biol. Eng.9:511–521, 1971.
Geddes, L. A.Evolution of circuit models for the electrode-electrolyte interface. Ann. Biomed. Eng.25:1–14, 1997.
Geddes, L. A., and L. E. Baker. Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrumentation, 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, 1989.
Geddes, L. A. Medical Device Accidents. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1998.
Geddes, L. A., M. Hinds, and K. S. Foster. Stimulation with capacitive electrodes. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.25:359–360, 1987.
Geddes, L. A. Electrodes and the Measurement of Bioelectric Events. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1972.
Hubel, D. H.Tungsten microelectrode for recording from single units. Science (Washington, DC, U.S.)125:549–550, 1950.
Jones, K. E., P. K. Campbell, and R. A. Norman. A glass/silicon composite intracortical array. Ann. Biomed. Eng.20:423–437, 1992.
Kohlrausch, F.über platinirte Elekroden und Widerstadsbestimmung. Ann. Phys. (Leipzig)60:315–332, 1897.
Lilly, J. C., J. R. Hughes, E. C. Alvord, and T. W. Gallin. Brief, noninjurious electrical stimulation of the brain. Science (Washington, DC, U.S.)121:468–469, 1955.
Loeb, C. E., and F. J. R. Richmond. BION Implants for Therapeutic and Functional Electrical Stimulation in Neural Prothesis for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function, edited by J. K. Chapin and K. A. Moxon. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2001.
Lopez, A., and P. Richardson. Capacitive electrocardiographic and bioelectric electrodes. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.16:99, 1969.
Maynard, E. M., C. T. Nordhausen, and R. A. Normann. The Utah intracortical electrode array. Ann. Biomed. Eng.20:423–437, 1992.
McHardy, J., D. Geller, and S. B. Brummer. An approach to corrosion control during electrical stimulation. Ann. Biomed. Eng.5:144–149, 1977.
Neural Prostheses, edited by W. F. Agnew and D. B. McCreery. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Radovsky, A. S., and J. S. Van Vlect. Effects of dexamethasone elution on tissue reaction around stimulating electrodes of endocardial pacing leads in dogs. Am. Heart J.117:1288–1298, 1989.
Ragheb, T., and L. A. Geddes. The polarization impedance of common electrode metals operated at low current density. Ann. Biomed. Eng.19:151–163, 1991.
Ray, C. D., R. G. Bickford, L. C. Clark, R. E. Johnston, T. M. Richards, D. Rogers, and W. E. Russert. A new multicontact, multipurpose brain depth probe. Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin.40:771–804, 1965.
Richardson, P. C., F. K. Coombs, and R. M. Adams. Some new electrode techniques for long-term physiologic monitoring. Aerosp. Med.39:745–750, 1968.
Richardson, P. C., and F. K. Coombs. New construction techniques for insulated electrocardiographic electrodes. Proc. 21st Ann. Conf. Eng. Med. Biol. 10:13A.1, 1968.
Robinson, F. R., and M. T. Johnson, Histopathological studies of tissue reactions to various metals implanted in cat brains, ASD Tech Rept. 1961, pp. 61–397. USAF Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio p. 13.
Schaldach, M., M. Hubmann, R. Hardt, and A. Weikl. Pacemaker electrodes made of titanium nitride. Biomed. Technik.34:185–190, 1989.
Schaldach, M. S.New pacemaker electrodes. Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs17:29–35, 1971.
Schmidt, S., K. Horch, and R. Norman. Biocompatibility of silicon-based electrode arrays implanted in feline cortical tissue. J. Biomed. Mater. Res.27:1393–1399, 1993.
Schwan, H. P., and J. G. Maczuk. Electrode polarization: Limits of linearity. Proc. 18th Ann. Conf. Eng. Biol. Med., 1965.
Schwan, H. P. Determination of biological impedances. In: Physical Techniques in Biological Research.New York: Academic, 1963, Vol. V1B.
Stensaas, S. S., and L. J. Stensaas. Histopathological evaluation of materials implanted in the cerebral cortex. Acta Neuropathol. (Berl)41:145–155, 1978.
Stokes, K. B., G. A. Bornzin, and W. A. Weabusch. A steroid-electing, low-threshold, low polarizing electrode. In: Cardiac Pacing, edited by D. Steinkoff. Verlag: Darnstadt, 1983, p. 369.
White, R. L., and T. J. Gross. An evaluation of the resistance to electolysis for metals for use in biostimulation microprobes. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.21:451–487, 1974.
Wise, K. D., and J. B. Angell. An integrated circuit approach to extracellular microelectrodes. Proc 8th Int. Conf. Med. Biol. Eng., 1969, paper No. 14–5.
Wolfson, R. N., and M. R. Neuman. Miniature Si–S1O2 insulated electrodes based on semiconductor technology. Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Med. Biol. Eng., Chicago, IL: Carl Gorr, 1969, paper No. 14–6.