, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 2-10

Cloned mice and embryonic stem cell establishment from adult somatic cell

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Cloning methods are now well described and becoming routine. Yet the frequency at which cloned offspring are produced remains below 2% irrespective of nucleus donor species or cell type. Especially in the mouse, few laboratories can make clones from adult somatic cells, and most mouse strains never succeed to produce cloned mice. On the other hand, nuclear transfer can be used to generate embryonic stem (ntES) cell lines from a patient’s own somatic cells. We have shown that ntES cells can be generated relatively easily from a variety of mouse genotypes and cell types of both sexes, even though it may be more difficult to generate clones directly. Several reports have already demonstrated that ntES cells can be used in regenerative medicine in order to rescue immune deficient or infertile phenotypes. However, it is unclear whether ntES cells are identical to fertilized embryonic stem (ES) cells. In general, ntES cell techniques are expected to be applicable to regenerative medicine, however, these techniques can also be used for the preservation of the genetic resources of mouse strains instead of preserving such resources in embryos, oocytes or spermatozoa. This review seeks to describe the phenotype, application, and possible abnormalities of cloned mice and ntES cell lines.