. The AIDS litigation project. A national review of court and human rights commission decisions, Part II: discrimination. JAMA. 1990;263:2086–93.PubMedCrossRef
Herek GM. AIDS and stigma. Am Behav Sci. 1999;42:1106–16.
Gostin LO, Feldblum C, Webber DW
. Disability discrimination in America: HIV/AIDS and other health conditions. JAMA. 1999;281:745–52.PubMedCrossRef
Herek GM, Capitanio JP, Widaman KF
. HIV-related stigma and knowledge in the United States: prevalence and trends, 1991–1999. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:371–7.PubMed
. Protecting patients from discrimination—the Americans with Disabilities Act and HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1255–9.PubMedCrossRef
Shapiro J, Webber DW. Access to public services and accommodations. In: Webber DW, ed. AIDS and the Law. 3rd edn, Vol 4. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1997:177–203.
Norton R, Schwartzbaum J, Wheat J
. Language discrimination of general physicians: AIDS metaphors used in the AIDS crisis. Commun Res. 1990;17:809–26.CrossRef
Kass NE, Faden RR, Fox R, Dudley J
. Homosexual and bisexual men’s perceptions of discrimination in health services. Am J Public Health. 1992;82:1277–9.PubMed
Boston G. Diversity classes next for hospital. Atlanta J Constitution. October 2, 1999;3F.
Schwartz M. Gay men and the health care system. In: Peterson KJ, ed. Health Care for Lesbians and Gay Men: Confronting Homophobia and Heterosexism. New York, NY: Harrington Park Press/Haworth Press; 1996:19–32.
Associated Press. Doctor defends refusal to treat AIDS patient. The Columbia Dispatch. June 2, 1994; 3C.
Bunting SM. Sources of stigma associated with women with HIV. Adv Nurs Sci. 1996;19:64–73.
Levin BW, Driscoll JMJ, Fleischman AR
. Treatment choice for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit at risk for AIDS. JAMA. 1991;265:2976–81.PubMedCrossRef
Kelly JA St., Lawrence JS, Smith SJ, Hood HV, Cook DJ
. Stigmatization of AIDS patients by physicians. Am J Public Health. 1987;77:789–91.PubMed
Kelly JA St., Lawrence JS, Smith SJ, Hood HV, Cook DJ
. Medical students’ attitudes toward AIDS and homosexual patients. J Med Educ. 1987;62:549–56.PubMed
Kelly JA St., Lawrence JS, Hood HV, Smith SJ, Cook DJ
. Nurses’ attitudes towards AIDS. J Contin Educ Nurs. 1988;19:78–83.PubMed
Forrester DA, Murphy PA
. Nurses’ attitudes toward patients with AIDS and AIDS-related risk factors. J Adv Nurs. 1992;17:1260–6.PubMedCrossRef
Hayward RA, Shapiro MF
. A national study of AIDS and residency training: experiences, concerns, and consequences. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114:23–32.PubMed
Bennett ME, Weyant RJ, Wallisch JM, Green G
. Dentists’ attitudes toward the treatment of HIV-positive patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995;126:509–14.PubMed
Feldmann TB, Bell RA, Stephenson JJ, Purifoy FE
. Attitudes of medical school faculty and students toward acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Acad Med. 1990;65:464–6.PubMedCrossRef
Gerbert B, Sumser J, Chamberlin K, Maguire BT, Greenblatt RM, McMaster JR
. Dental care experience of HIV-positive patients. J Am Dent Assoc. 1989;119:601–3.PubMed
Gemson DH, Colombotos J, Elinson J, Fordyce EJ, Hynes M, Stoneburner R
. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary care physicians. Arch Intern Med. 1991;151:1102–8.PubMedCrossRef
. AIDS fears and homophobia among rural nursing personnel. AIDS Educ Prev. 1989;1:277–84.PubMed
Sowell RL, Moneyham L, Aranda-Naranjo B
. The care of women with AIDS: special needs and considerations. Nurs Clin North Am. 1999;34:179–99.PubMed
. Oral testimonies: the other face of the HIV story. P R Health Sci J. 1998;17:375–80.PubMed
Greene VA, Chu SY, Diaz T, Schable B
. Oral health problems and use of dental services among HIV-infected adults. Supplement to HIV/AIDS surveillance project group. J Am Dent Assoc. 1997;128:1417–22.PubMed
Burris S. Dental discrimination against the HIV-infected: empirical data, law and public policy. Yale J Regul. 1996;13:1–104.
Bragdon v Sidney Abbott: 118 S. Ct. 2196; 1998.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.
Burke BP, White JC
. Wellbeing of gay, lesbian, and bisexual doctors. BMJ. 2001;322:422–5.PubMedCrossRef
Capitanio JP, Herek GM. AIDS-related stigma and attitudes toward injecting drug users among black and white Americans. Am Behav Sci. 1999;42:1148–61.
Mays VM, Cochran SD
. Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay and bisexual adults in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1869–76.PubMed
Weiner B. AIDS from an attributional perspective. In: Reeder GD, ed. The Social Psychology of HIV Infection. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1993:287–302.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS—United States, 1981–2000. MMWR. 2001;50:429–56.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2003, Vol. 15. Atlanta, Ga: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004: Also available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/hasrlink.htm.
Krieger N, Sidney S
. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA study of young Black and White adults. Am J Public Health. 1996;86:1370–8.PubMed
Ferguson JA, Weinberger M, Westmoreland GR, et al.
Racial disparity in cardiac decision making: results from patient focus groups. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:1450–3.PubMedCrossRef
Smedley BD, Stitch AY, Nelson AR. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2002.
Kressin NR, Petersen LA
. Racial differences in the use of invasive cardiovascular procedures: review of the literature and prescription for future research. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:352–66.PubMed
Bird ST, Bogart LM. Perceived race-based and socioeconomic status (SES)-based discrimination in interactions with health care providers. Ethnic Dis. 2001;11:554–63.
. Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure? Soc Sci Med. 1990;30:1273–81.PubMedCrossRef
Lillie-Blanton M, Brodie M, Rowland D, Altman D, McIntosh M
. Race, ethnicity, and the health care system: public perceptions and experiences. Med Care Res Rev. 2000;1:218–35.CrossRef
Ren XS, Amick BC, Williams DR. Racial/ethnic disparities in health: the interplay between discrimination and socioeconomic status. Ethnic Dis. 1999;9:151–65.
Bird ST, Bogart LM, Delahanty DL
. Health-related correlates of perceived discrimination in HIV care. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2004;18:19–26.PubMedCrossRef
Charbonneau A, Maheux B, Baeland F
. Do people with HIV/AIDS disclose their HIV-positivity to dentists? AIDS Care. 1999;11:61–70.PubMedCrossRef
McCarthy GM, Haji FS, Mackie ID
. HIV-infected patients and dental care: nondisclosure of HIV status and rejection for treatment. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 1995;80:655–9.PubMedCrossRef
Williams DR, Neighbors HW, Jackson JS
. Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: findings from community studies. Am J Public Health. 2003;93:200–8.PubMed
. Biopsychosocial approach to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic. A clinician’s primer. Gen Hosp Psychiatr. 1990;12:98–123.CrossRef
Alonzo AA, Reynolds NR
. Stigma, HIV and AIDS: an exploration and elaboration of a stigma trajectory. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:303–15.PubMedCrossRef
Kessler RC, Mickelson KD, Williams DR
. The prevalence. distribution. and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. J Health Soc Behav. 1999;40:208–30.PubMedCrossRef
Sellers RM, Shelton JN
. The role of racial identity in perceived racial discrimination. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003;84:1079–92.PubMedCrossRef
Bozzette SA, Berry SH, Duan N, et al.
The care of HIV-infected adults in the United States HIV cost and services utilization study consortium. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:1897–904.PubMedCrossRef
Frankel MR, Shapiro MF, Duan N, et al.
National probability samples in studies of low-prevalence diseases. Part II: designing and implementing the HIV cost and services utilization study sample. Health Serv Res. 1999;34(5, Part I):969–93.PubMed
Lam NSN, Liu KB
. Use of space-filling curves in generating a national rural sampling frame for HIV/AIDS research. Prof. Geogr. 1996;48:312–32.CrossRef
Berry SH, Brown JA, Allen C, Keesey J, Allen J, Amidon T. HCSUS Baseline Patient Questionnaire Documentation. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND; 1998.
. Felt versus enacted stigma: a concept revisited. Soc Sci Med. 1994;38:269–74.PubMedCrossRef
Cunningham WE, Burton TM, Hawes-Dawson J, Kington RS, Hays RD
. Use of relevancy ratings by target respondents to develop health-related quality of life measures: an example with African-American elderly. Qual Life Res. 2000;8:749–68.CrossRef
Jones JM. Prejudice and Racism. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.; 1972.
Cunningham WE, Hays RD, Williams KW, Beck KC, Dixon WJ, Shapiro MF
. Access to medical care and health-related quality of life for low-income persons with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus. Med Care. 1995;33:739–54.PubMedCrossRef
Cunningham WE, Andersen RM, Katz MH, et al.
The impact of competing needs for basic subsistence on access to medical care for persons with HIV receiving care in the United States. Med Care. 1999;37:1270–81.PubMedCrossRef
Cleary PD, Fahs MC, McMullen W, et al.
Using patient reports to assess hospital treatment of persons with AIDS: a pilot study. AIDS Care. 1992;4:325–32.PubMed
Cleary PD, Edgman-Levitan S, McMullen W. A national survey of hospital patients: the relationship between reported problems with care and patient evaluations. Qual Rev Bull. 1993;18:53–9.
Kao AC, Green DC, Zaslavsky AM, Koplan JP, Cleary PD
. The relationship between method of physician payment and patient trust. JAMA. 1998;280:1708–14.PubMedCrossRef
Cunningham WE, Rana HM, Shapiro MF, Hays RD
. Reliability and validity of self-report CD4 counts-in persons hospitalized with HIV disease. J Clin Epidemiol. 1997;50:829–35.PubMedCrossRef
Brick JM, Kalton G. Handling missing data in survey research. Stat Methods Med Res. 1966;5:215–38.
Duan N, McCaffrey DF, Frankel MR, et al. HCSUS Baseline Methods Technical Report. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND; 1999.
Kish L, Frankel MR. Inference from complex samples. J R Stat Soc B. 1974;36:1–37.
Wilson IB, Landon BE, Ding L, et al.
A national study of the relationship of care site HIV specialization to early adoption of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Med Care. 2005;43:12–20.PubMed
Essed P. Understanding Everyday Racism: An Interdisciplinary Theory. Newbury Park: Sage Publications; 1991.
Feagin JR, Sikes MP. Living With Racism: The Black Middle-Class Experience. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press; 1994.
Taylor DM, Wright SC, Porter LE. Dimensions of perceived discrimination: the personal/group discrimination discrepancy. In: Olson JM, ed. The Psychology of Prejudice: The Ontario Symposium, Vol 7. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.; 1994:233–55.
Lee J, Gehlbach S, Hosmer DW, Reti M, Baker CS
. Medicare treatment differences for blacks and whites. Med Care. 1997;35:1173–89.PubMedCrossRef
Schneider EC, Cleary PD, Zaslavsky AM, Epstein AM
. Racial disparity in influenza vaccination: does managed care narrow the gap between African Americans and whites? JAMA. 2001;286:1455–60.PubMedCrossRef
Hooper EM, Comstock LM, Goodwin JM, Goodwin JS
. Patient characteristics that influence physician behavior. Med Care. 1982;20:630–8.PubMedCrossRef
van Ryn M, Fu SS
. Paved with good intentions: do public health and human service providers contribute to racial/ethnic disparities in health? Am J Public Health. 2003;93:248–55.PubMedCrossRef
Geiger HJ. Racial and ethnic disparities in diagnosis and treatment: a review of the evidence and a consideration of causes. In: Nelson AR, ed. Unequal Treatment: Confirming Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine: 2002.
Marques JM, Yzerbyt VY, Leyens JP
. The “Black Sheep Effects”: extremity of judgments towards ingroup members as a function of group identification. Eur J Soc Psychol. 1988;18:1–16.CrossRef
Marques JM, Abrams D, Serodio RG
. Being better by being right: subjective group dynamics and derogation of in-group deviants when generic norms are undermined. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001;81:436–47.PubMedCrossRef
Lerner MJ. The desire for justice and reactions to victims. In: Berkowitz L, ed. Altruism and Helping Behavior. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1970:205–29.
Kahn KL, Pearson ML, Harrison ER, et al.
Health care for black and poor hospitalized Medicare patients. JAMA. 1994;271:1169–74.PubMedCrossRef
Horsman JM, Sheeran P
. Health care workers and HIV/AIDS: a critical review of the literature. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41:1535–67.PubMedCrossRef
Passannante MR, French J, Louria DB
. How much do health care providers know about AIDS? Am J Prev Med. 1993;9:6–14.PubMed
Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ware JE
. Assessing the effects of physician-patient interactions on the outcomes of chronic disease. Med Care. 1989;27(3, suppl):S110–27.PubMedCrossRef
. Discrimination in health care. Ann Intern Med. 1997;126:910–2.PubMed
. The problem of discrimination in health care priority setting. JAMA. 1992;268:1454–9.PubMedCrossRef
Gostin LO, Webber DW
. HIV infection and AIDS in the public health and health care systems: the role of law and litigation. JAMA. 1998;279:1108–13.PubMedCrossRef
Richter D. Not in my office: medical professionals and their refusal to treat HIV/AIDS patients. Law Psychol Rev. 1999;23:179–93.
Gallop RM, Taerk G, Lancee WJ, Coates RA, Flanning M
. A randomized trial of group interventions for hospital staff caring for persons with AIDS. AIDS Care. 1992;4:177–85.PubMed
. An exploration of AIDS education and teaching methods. AIDS Care. 1991;3:101–4.PubMed
Jemmott LS, Jemmott JB, Cruz-Collins M
. Predicting AIDS patient care intentions among nursing students. Nurs Res. 1992;41:172–7.PubMed