The impact of cigarette smoking on mortality, quality of life, and comorbid illness among HIV-positive veterans
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BACKGROUND: The impact of smoking on outcomes among those with HIV infection has not been determined in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Determine the impact of smoking on morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive patients post-HAART.
DESIGN: Prospective observational study.
PARTICIPANTS: Eight hundred and sixty-seven HIV-positive veterans enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort 3 Site Study.
MEASUREMENTS: Clinical data were collected through patient questionnaire, International Classification of Diseases—9th edition codes, and standardized chart extraction, and laboratory and mortality data through the national VA database. Quality of life was assessed with the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short-Form 12.
RESULTS: Current smokers had increased respiratory symptoms, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bacterial pneumonia. In analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, CD4 cell count, HIV RNA level, hemoglobin, illegal drug and alcohol use, quality of life was substantially decreased (β=−3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] −5.3 to −1.4) and mortality was significantly increased (hazard ratio 1.99, 95% CI 1.03 to 3.86) in current smokers compared with never smokers.
CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive patients who currently smoke have increased mortality and decreased quality of life, as well as increased respiratory symptoms, COPD, and bacterial pneumonia. These findings suggest that smoking cessation should be emphasized for HIV-infected patients.
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- The impact of cigarette smoking on mortality, quality of life, and comorbid illness among HIV-positive veterans
Journal of General Internal Medicine
Volume 20, Issue 12 , pp 1142-1145
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- health-related quality of life
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn, USA
- 2. General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn, USA
- 3. University Center for Social and Urban Research, University of Pittsburgh, and Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA
- 4. Medical Service, Infectious Diseases, Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, and Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex, USA
- 5. General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles
- 6. Greater Los Angeles VA Medical Center, Los Angeles, Calif, USA
- 7. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital of Saint Raphael, New Haven, Conn, USA
- 8. Department of Medicine, George Washington University, USA
- 9. Section of Infectious Diseases, VA Medical Center, Wash, USA
- 10. Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA
- 11. General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn, USA