Fisheries Science

, Volume 72, Issue 2, pp 310–321

Growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus to probiotics in a closed recirculating system


  • Yousuke Taoka
    • The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of FisheriesKagoshima University
    • Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of FisheriesKagoshima University
  • Jae-Yoon Jo
    • Department of AquaculturePukyong National University
  • Min-Jee Jeon
    • Department of AquaculturePukyong National University
  • Sungchul C. Bai
    • Department of AquaculturePukyong National University
  • Won-Jae Lee
    • Department of MicrobiologyPukyong National University
  • Kazuya Yuge
    • DSM Nutrition Japan KK
  • Shunsuke Koshio
    • Laboratory of Aquatic Animal Nutrition, Faculty of FisheriesKagoshima University

DOI: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01152.x

Cite this article as:
Taoka, Y., Maeda, H., Jo, J. et al. Fish Sci (2006) 72: 310. doi:10.1111/j.1444-2906.2006.01152.x


Effects of probiotics on growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were evaluated in a closed recirculating system. Survival and growth of flounder treated by supplying commercial probiotics either in the diet (the probiotic diet group), or into the rearing water (the water supply group), were higher compared to the untreated group (the control group). Water quality parameters, pH, NH4−N, NO2−N and PO4−P showed lower concentration in the probiotic diet group compared with the control group and the supply group. Plasma lysozyme activity in the probiotic diet group and the water supply group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in the control group. In heat shock stress tests, flounder in the probiotics-treated groups showed greater heat tolerance (measured by 50% lethal time, LT50) than the control group. Pathogen challenge tests with Vibrio anguillarum (2×107 c.f.u./mL) resulted in significantly higher survival in the probiotics-treated groups than the control group. Results indicated that probiotics supplied in the rearing water and the diet of fish enhanced the stress tolerance and the non-specific immune system of Japanese flounder, providing them a higher resistance against stress conditions and pathogens.

Key Words

closed recirculating systemflounderlysozymenon-specific immune responseprobioticswater quality
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© The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science 2006