Apple J. L. & Feener J. R. D. L. (2001) Ant visitation of extrafloral nectaries of. Passiflora: the effects of nectary attributes and ant behavior on patterns in facultative ant-plant mutualisms. Oecologia 127: 409–416.
Barton A. M. (1986) Spatial variation in the effect of ants on an extrafloral nectary plant. Ecology 67: 495–504.
Beattie A. J. (1985) The Evolutionary Ecology of Ant-Plant Mutualisms. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Bentley B. L. (1977a) The protective function of ants visiting the extrafloral nectaries of Bixa orellana (Bixaceae). Journal of Ecology 65: 27–38.
Bentley B. L. (1977b) Extrafloral nectaries and protection by pugnacious bodyguards. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 407–427.
Bristow C. M. (1984) Differential benefits from ant attendance to two species of Homoptera on New York ironweed. Journal of Animal Ecology 53: 715–726.
Buckley R. & Gullan P. (1991) More aggressive ant species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) provide better protection for soft scales and mealybugs (Homoptera: Coccidae, Pseudococcidae). Biotoropica 23: 282–286.
Carroll C. R. & Janzen D. H. (1973) Ecology of foraging ants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 231–257.
Cushman J. H. & Addicott J. F. (1989) Intraspecific and interspecific competition for mutualists: ants as a limited and limiting resource for aphids. Oecologia 79: 315–321.
Fischer M. K., Hoffmann K. H. & Völkl W. (2001) Competition for mutualists in an ant–homopteran interaction mediated by hierarchies of ant attendance. Oikos 92: 531–541.
Fischer M. K., Völkl W., Schopf R. & Hoffmann K. H. (2002) Age-specific patterns in honeydew production and honeydew composition in the aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride: implications for ant-attendance. Journal of Insect Physiology. 48: 319–326.
Floate K. D. & Whitham T. G. (1994) Aphid–ant interaction reduces chrysomelid herbivory in a cottonwood hybrid zone. Oecologia 97: 215–221.
Gaume L. & McKey D. (1999) An ant-plant mutualism and its host-specific parasite: activity rhythms, young leaf patrolling, and effects on herbivores of two specialist plant-ants inhabiting the same myrmecophyte. Oikos 84: 130–144.
Horvitz C. C. & Schemske D. W. (1990) Spatiotemporal variation in insect mutualists of a neotropical herb. Ecology 71: 1085–1097.
Inouye D. W. & Taylor O. R. (1979) A temperate region plant-ant-seed predator system: consequences of extrafloral nectar secretion by Helianthella quinquenervis. Ecology 60: 1–7.
Itioka T. & Inoue T. (1996) Density-dependent ant attendance and its effects on the parasitism of a honeydew-producing scale insect, Ceroplastes rubens. Oecologia 106: 448–454.
Itioka T. & Inoue T. (1999) The alternation of mutualistic ant species affects the population growth of their trophobiont mealybug. Ecography 22: 169–177.
Ito F. & Higashi S. (1991) An indirect mutualism between oaks and wood ants via aphids. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 463–470.
Katayama N. & Suzuki N. (2002) Cost and benefit of ant attendance for Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with reference to aphid colony size. Canadian Entomologist 134: 241–250.
Katayama N. & Suzuki N. (2003a) Changes in the use of extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba (Leguminosae) and honeydew of aphids by ants with increasing aphid density. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96: 579–584.
Katayama N. & Suzuki N. (2003b) Bodyguard effects for the aphids of Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) as related to the activity of two ant species, Tetramorium caespitum Linnaeus and Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 38: 427–433.
Koptur S. (1979) Facultative mutualism between weedy vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries and weedy ants in California. American Journal of Botany 66: 1016–1020.
Koptur S. (1992) Extrafloral nectary–mediated interactions between insects and plants. In: Insect–Plant Interaction Volume IV (ed. E. Bernays), pp. 81–129. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
Koptur S. & Lawton J. H. (1988) Interactions among vetches bearing extrafloral nectaries, their biotic protective agents, and herbivore. Ecology 69: 278–283.
Messina F. J. (1981) Plant protection as a consequence of an ant-membracid mutualism: interactions on goldenrod (Solidago sp.). Ecology 62: 1433–1440.
O’Dowd D. J. & Catchpole E. A. (1983) Ants and extrafloral nectaries: no evidence for plant protection in Helicrysum spp. – ant interactions. Oecologia 59: 191–200.
Oliveira P. S., Rico-Graym V., Díaz-Castelazo C. & Castillo-Guevara C. (1999) Interaction between ants, extrafloral nectaries and insect herbivores in Neotropical coastal sand dunes; herbivore deterrence by visiting ants increases fruit set in Opuntia stricta (Cactaceae). Functional Ecology 13: 623–631.
Rashbrook V. K., Compton S. G., Lawton J. H. (1992) Ant–herbivore interactions: reasons for the absence of benefits to a fern with foliar nectaries. Ecology 73: 2167–2174.
Sakata H. (1994) How an ant decides to prey on or to attend aphids. Researches on Population Ecology 36: 45–51.
Sakata H. (1995) Density-dependent predation of the ant Lasius niger (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on two attended aphids Lachnus tropicalis and Myzocallis kuricola (Homoptera: Aphididae). Researches on Population Ecology 37: 159–164.
Sakata H. (1999) Indirect interactions between two aphid species in relation to ant attendance. Ecological Research 14: 329–340.
Sakata H. & Hashimoto Y. (2000) Should aphids attract or repel ants? Effect of rival aphids and extrafloral nectaries on ant–aphid interactions. Population Ecology 42: 171–178.
Shingleton A. W. & Foster W. A. (2000) Ant tending influences soldier production in a social aphid. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 267: 1863–1868.
Skinner G. J. & Whittaker J. B. (1981) An experimental investigation of inter-relationships between the wood-ant (Formica rufa) and some tree-canopy herbivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 50: 313–326.
Tilman D. (1978) Cherries, ants, and tent caterpillars: Timing of nectar production in relation to susceptibility of caterpillars to ant predation. Ecology 59: 686–692.
Völkl W., Woodring J., Fischer M., Lorenz M. W., Hoffmann K. H. (1999) Ant-aphid mutualism: the impact of honeydew production and honeydew sugar composition on ant preferences. Oecologia 118: 483–491.
Way M. J. (1963) Mutualism between ants and honeydew-producing Homoptera. Annual Review of Entomology 8: 307–344.