West Nile virus and the climate
- Dr. Paul R. Epstein
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional “spillover” to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.
- Albritton DL, Allen MR, Baede APM, et al.Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I Summary for Policy Makers, Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Available at: http://www.ipcc.ch. Accessed 2001.
- Easterling DR, Meehl GA, Parmesan C, Changnon SA, Karl TR, Mearns LO. Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts.Science. 2000;289:2068–2074. CrossRef
- Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Stephens C. Warming of the world ocean.Science. 2000;287:2225–2229. CrossRef
- Parkinson CL, Cavalieri DJ, Gloersen P, Zwally HJ, Comiso JC. Spatial distribution of trends and seasonality in the hemispheric sea ice covers.J Geophys Res. 1999;104(C9): 20827–20835. CrossRef
- Rothrock DA, Yu Y, Marykut GA. Thinning of the Arctic Sea ice cover.J Geophys Res Lett. 1999;26:3469–3472. CrossRef
- Epstein P. Is global warming harmful to health?Sci Am. 2000;283(2):50–57. CrossRef
- Monath TP, Tsai TF. St. Louis encephalitis: lessons from the last decade.Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;37:40s-59s.
- World Health Organization.The World Health Report 1996: Fighting Disease, Fostering Development. Geneva, Switzerland; World Health Organization; 1996.
- McMichael AJ, Haines A, Slooff R, eds.Climate Change and Human Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, World Meteorological Organization, United Nations Environmental Program; 1996.
- Houghton J, Meiro Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, Kattenberg A, Maskell K (eds.).Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 1996. Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
- West Nile virus and the climate
Journal of Urban Health
Volume 78, Issue 2 , pp 367-371
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Center for Health and the Global Environment, Harvard Medical School, Holmes-263, 260 Longwood Avenue, 02115, Boston, MA, Massachusetts