National Research Council. Indoor Air Pollutants. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1981.
Lawrence RJ. Healthy residential environments. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002;394–412.
Matte TD. Housing and, health: current issues and implications for research and programs. J Urban Health.
Evans GW, Wells NM, Moch A. Housing and mental health: a review of the evidence and a methodological and conceptual critique. J Soc Issues
Freeman HL. Housing. In: Freeman HL ed. Mental Health and the Environment. London, England: Churchill Livingstone; 1984:197–225.
Gifford R. Satisfaction, health, security, and social relationships in high-rise buildings. In: Seidel A, Heath T, eds. Social Effects of the Built Environment. London, England: E & FN Spon. In press.
Fanning, DM. Families in flats. BMJ
McCarthy D, Saegert S. Residential density, social overload, and social withdrawal. In: Aiello J, Baum A, eds. Residential Crowding and Design. New York, NY, Plenum; 1979:55–76.
Saegert S. Environments and children’s mental health: residential density and low income children. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Handbook of Psychology and Health, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1982:242–271.
Bartlett S. Does inadequate housing perpetuate children’s poverty Childhood. 1998; 5:403–420.
Stewart W. Children in Flats: A Family Study. London, England: National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children; 1970.
Halpern D. Mental Health and the Built Environment. London, England: Taylor and Francis; 1995.
Carp FM. Impact of improved housing on morale and life satisfaction. Gerontologist
Elton PJ, Packer J. A prospective, randomized trial of the value of rehousing on the grounds of mental health. J Chronic Dis
Evans GW, Wells NM, Chan E, Saltzman H. Housing and mental health. J Consult Clin Psychol
Christensen D, Carp FM, Crams G, Wiley J. Objective housing indicators as predictors of the subjective evaluation of elderly residents. J Environ Psychol.
Adam EK, Chase-Lansdale PL. Home sweet home(s): parental separations, residential moves, and adjustment problems in low-income girls. Dev Psychol.
Humke C, Schaefer C. Relocation: a review of the effects of residential mobility on children and adolescents. Psychol J Hum Behav. 1995;32:16–24.
Lawton MP. Environment and Aging. Monterey, Calif: Brooks-Cole; 1980.
Fried M. Grieving for a lost home. In: Duhl L, ed. The Urban Condition. New York, NY: Basic;1963:229–248.
Kearns A, Hiscock R, Ellaway A, Macintrye S. Beyond four walls. The psychosocial benefits of home: evidence from West Central Scotland. Housing Stud
Gielen AC, Wilson M, Faden R, Wissow L, Harvilchuck J In-home injury prevention practices for infants and toddlers: the role of parental beliefs, barriers, and housing quality. Health Educ Q
Macpherson A, Roberts I, Pless IB. Children’s exposure to traffic and pedestrian injuries. Am J Public Health
Mueller BA, Rivara FP, Lii SM, Weiss NS. Environmental factors and the risk for childhood pedestrian-motor vehicle collision occurrence. Am J Epidemiol
. 1990;132: 550–560.PubMed
O’Campo P, Rao RP, Gielen AC, Royalty W, Wilson M. Injury-producing events among children in low-income communities: the role of community characteristics. J Urban Health
Johnson MP, Ladd HF, Ludwig J. The benefits and costs of residential mobility programs for the poor. Housing Stud
Dalgard OS, Tambs K. Urban environment and mental health a longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry
Evans GW, Kantrowitz E. Socioeconomic status and health: the potential role of environmental risk exposure. Annu Rev Public Health
Wandersman A, Nation M. Urban neighborhoods and mental health. Am Psychol
Leventhal T, Brooks-Gunn J. Neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychol Bull
Weich S, Blanchard M, Prince M, Burton E, Erens B, Sproston K. Mental health and the built environment: cross sectional survey of individual and contextual risk factors for depression. Br J Psychiatry
Holahan CJ. Seating patterns and patient behaviours in an experimental dayroom. J Abnorm Psychol
Holahan CJ, Saegert S. Behavioral and attitudinal effects of large scale variation in the physical environment of psychiatric wards. J Abnorm Psychol. 1972;82:454–462.
Osmond H. Function as the basis of psychiatric ward design. Ment Hospitals. 1957;8: 23–30.
Sommer R. Personal Space. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall; 1969.
Timko C. Physical characteristics of residential psychiatric and substance abuse programs: organizational determinats and patient outcomes. Am J Community Psychol
Zimring C, Weitzer W, Knight RC. Opportunity for control and the designed environment. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Advances in Environmental Psychology. Vol. 4. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum; 1982:171–210.
Ittelson WH, Proshansky HM, Rivlin LG. The environmental psychology of the psychiatric ward. In: Proshansky HM, Ittelson WH, Rivlin LG, eds. Environmental Psychology. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston: 1970:419–438.
Day K, Calkins MP. Design and dementia. In:Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY, Wiley; 2002:374–393.
Kuller R. Familiar design helps dementia patients cope. In: Preiser WFE, Vischer JC, White ET, eds. Design Intervention. New York, NY: Van Nostrand; 1991:255–268.
Baum A, Paulus PB. Crowding. In: Stokols D, Altman I, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley; 1987:533–570.
Evans GW. Environmental stress and health In: Baum A, Revenson T, Singer JE, eds. Handbook of Health Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 2001:571–610.
Paulus PB. Prison Crowding: A Psychological Perspective. New York, NY: Springer; 1988.
Wener RE, Keys C. The effects of changes in jail population densities on crowding: sick call, and social behavior. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1988;18:852–866.
Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Allen KM. Cross-cultural differences in tolerance for crowding: fact or fiction. J Pers Soc Psychol
Evans GW, Lercher P, Meis M, Ising, H, Kofler W. Community noise exposure and stress in children. J Acoustical Soc Am
Gove WR, Hughes M. Overcrowding in the Household. New York, NY: Academic; 1983.
Lepore SJ, Evans GW, Schneider M. The dynamic role of social support in the link between chronic stress and psychological distress. J Pers Soc Psychol
Stansfeld SA. Noise, noise sensitivity, and psychiatric disorder: epidemiological and psychophysiological studies. Psychol Med, Monogr Suppl
Lercher P, Evans GW, Meis M, Kofler W. Ambient neighborhood noise and children’s mental health. Occup Environ Med
Bullinger M, Hygge S, Evans GW, Meis M, van Mackensen, S. The psychological cost of aircraft noise for children. Zentralblatt Hygiene Umveltmedizin. 1999;202:127–138.
Grandjean E, Graf P, Lauber A, Meier H, Muller R. Survey on the effects of noise around three civil airports in Switzerland. In: Kerlin R, ed. Internoise ’76, Washington, DC: Institute of Noise Control Engineers; 1976:85–90.
Knipschild P, Oudshoorn N, VII. Medical effects of aircraft noise: drug survey. Int Arch Occup Environ Health
Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Brenthall S, et al. The West London schools study: the effects of chronic noise exposure on child health. Psychol Med
Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Job RFS, Berglund B, Head J. A follow-up study of effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on child stress responses and cognition. Int J Epidemiol
Haines MM, Stansfeld SA, Job RFS, Berglund B, Head J. Chronic aircraft noise exposure, stress responses, mental health and cognitive performance in school children. Psychol Med
Evans GW. The psychological costs of chronic exposure to ambient air pollution. In: Isaacson RL, Jensen KF, eds. The Vulnerable Brain and Environmental Risks. New York, NY: Plenum; 1994:167–182.
Rotton J, Cohn EG. Climate, weather, and crime. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology, 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:481–498.
Rotton J. Affective and cognitive consequences of malodorous pollution. Basic Appl Soc Psychol
Cavalini P, Koeter-Kemmerling L, Pulles TM. Coping with odor annoyance and odor concentrations. J Environ Psychol
Araki S Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1994.
Needleman HL, Gunnoe C, Leviton, A, et al. Deficits in psychological and classroom performance of children with elevated dentine lead levels. N Engl J Med
. 1979;300: 689–695.PubMedCrossRef
Needleman HL, Schell A, Bellinger D, Leviton A, Allred E. The long term effects of low doses of lead in childhood: an 11 year follow up report. N Engl J Med
. 1989;322: 83–88.CrossRef
Sciarillo WG, Alexander G, Farrell KP. Lead exposure and child behavior. Am J Public Health
Bell IR, Baldwin CM, Schottenfeld RS. Psychological, sequelae of hazardous materials exposure. In: Sullivan JB, Krieger GR, eds. Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001:404–412.
Masters RD, Hone B, Doshi A. Environmental pollution, neurotoxicity, and criminal violence. In: Rose J, ed. Environmental Toxicology. New York, NY: Gordon and Breach; 1998:13–48.
Laughlin NK. Animal models of behavioral effects of early lead exposure. In: Riley EP, Vorhess CV, eds. Handbook of Behavioral Teratology. New York, NY: Plenum; 1986; 291–320.
Edelstein MR. Contaminated Communities. Boulder, Colo: Westview; 1988.
Edelstein MR. Contamination: the invisible built environment. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. The Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:559–588.
Rosenthal NE, Sack DA, Gillin JC, et al. Seasonal affective disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry
Beauchemin KM, Hays P. Sunny hospital rooms expedite recovery from severe and refractory depressions. J Affective Disord.
McColl SL, Veitch JA. Full spectrum fluorescent lighting: a review of its effects on physiology and health. Psychol Med.
Kuller R, Lindsten C. Health and behavior of children in classrooms with and without windows. J Environ Psychol.
Bandura A. Self Efficacy. San Francisco, Calif: W.H. Freeman; 1987.
Shapiro DH, Astin J. Control, Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley; 1998.
Taylor SE, Brown JD. Illusions and well being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol Bull.
Glass DC, Singer JL. Urban Stress. New York, NY: Academic; 1972.
Hiroto D. Locus of control and learned helplessness. J. Exp Psychol. 1974;102:187–193.
Krantz DS, Glass DC, Snyder M Helplessness, stress level, and coronary prone behavior pattern
. J Exp Soc Psychol.
Evans GW. Behavioral and physiological consequences of crowding in humans. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1979;9:27–46.
Nicosia G, Hyman D, Karlin R, Epstein Y, Aiello J. Effects of bodily contact on reactions to crowding. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1979;9:508–523.
Sherrod D, Crowding, perceived control, and behavioral aftereffects. J Appl Soc Psychol. 1974;4:171–186.
Cohen S, Evans GW, Stokols D, Krantz DS. Behavior, Health, and Environmental Stress. New York, NY: Plenum; 1986.
Evans GW, Hygge S, Bullinger M. Chronic noise and psychological stress. Psychol Sci.
Moch A. Study of the effects of noise on the personality and certain intellectual and psychomotor aspects of children. Travail Human. 1981;44:170–178.
Maxwell LE, Evans GW. The effects of noise on preschool children’s prereading skills. J Environ Psychol.
Fleming I, Baum A, Weiss L. Social density and perceived control as mediators of crowding stress in high density neighborhoods. J Pers Soc Psychol.
Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Sejwal B, Palsane MN. Chronic residential crowding and children’s well being: an ecological perspective. Child Dev.
Rodin J. Density, perceived choice, and response to controllable and uncontrollable outcomes. J Exp Soc Psychol.
Baum A, Valins S. Architecture and Social Behavior, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1977.
Baum A, Valins S. Architectural mediation of residential density and control: crowding and the regulation of social contact. In: Berkowitz L, ed. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York, NY: Academic; 1979.
Baum A, Gatchel R, Aiello J, Thompson D. Cognitive mediation of environmental stress. In: Harvey J, ed. Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1981:513–533.
Churchman A, Ginsberg Y. The image and experience of high rise housing in Israel. J Environ Psychol.
Evans GW, Saltzman H, Cooperman J. Housing quality and children’s socioemotional health. Env Behav.
Alexander C. The city as a mechanism for sustaining human contact. In: Gutman R, ed. People and Buildings. New York, NY: Basic; 1972:406–434.
Zimring C. The built environment as a source of psychological stress: impacts of buildings and cities on satisfaction and behavior. In: Evans GW, ed. Environmental Stress. New York, NY: Cambridge; 1982:151–198.
Evans GW, Lepore SJ, Schroeder A. The role of architecture in human responses to crowding. J Pers Soc Psychol.
Peponis J, Wineman J. Spatial structure of environment and behavior. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:271–291.
Nasar JL, Fisher B. Hot spots of fear and crime: a multi-method investigation. J Environ Psychol.
Newman O. Defensible Space. New York, NY: Macmillan; 1972.
Taylor RB. Human Territorial Functioning. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1988.
Taylor RB. Crime prevention through environmental design. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:413–426.
Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science
Rosenbaum JE, Reynolds L, Deluca S. How do places matter? The geography of opportunity, self-efficacy, and a look inside the black box of residential mobility. Housing Stud.
Cohen S, Gottlieb BH, Underwood LG. Social relationships and health. In: Cohen S, Underwood LG, Gottlieb BH, eds. Social Support Measurement and Intervention. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2000:3–28.
Cohen S, Syme SL, eds. Social Support and Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1985.
Kawachi I, Bergman LF. Social ties and mental health. J Urban Health
Vaux A. Social Support: Theory, Research, and Intervention. New York, NY: Praeger; 1988.
Fleming R, Baum A, Singer JE. Social support and the physical environment. In: Cohen S, Syme L, eds. Social Support and Health. New York, NY: Academic; 1985: 327–346.
Moos RH. The Human Context. New York, NY: Wiley; 1976.
Becker FD. Workplace by Design. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass; 1995.
McCoy JM. Work environments. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002:443–460.
Sundstrom E. Workplaces. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1986.
Bechtel RB. Enclosing Behavior. Stroudsburg, Pa: Dowden, Hutchinson, and Ross; 1976.
Carr S, Francis M, Rivlin LG, Stone A. Public Space. New York, NY: Cambridge; 1992.
Whyte WH. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, DC: Conservation Foundation; 1980.
Evans GW, Lepore SJ. Household crowding and social support: a quasi-experimental analysis. J Pers Soc Psychol.
Holahan CJ. Environment and Behavior. New York, NY: Plenum; 1978.
Wilcox BL, Holahan CJ. Social ecology of the megadorm in university student housing. J Educ Psychol.
Appleyard D, Lintell M. The environmental quality of city streets. J Am Inst Planners. 1972;38:84–101.
Berglund B, Lindvall T, Schewela D. Guidelines for Community Noise. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2000.
Kryter K. The Handbook of Hearing and the Effects of Noise. New York, NY: Academic; 1994.
Medical Research Council. The Nonauditory Effects of Noise. Report R10, Institute for Environment and Health. Leicester, England: University of Leicester; 1997.
Cohen S, Spacapan S. The social psychology of noise. In: Jones DM, Chapman AJ, eds. Noise and Society. Chichester, England: Wiley; 1984:221–245.
Kaplan R, Kaplan S. The Experience of Nature. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 1984.
Kaplan R, Kaplan S, Ryan RL. With People in Mind. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1998.
Kuo FE. Coping with poverty. Env Behav.
Parsons R, Hartig T. Environmental psychophysiology. In: Cacioppo JT, Tassinary LG, Berntson GG, eds. Handbook of Psychophysiology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2000:815–846.
Ulrich RS. Biophilia, biophobia, and natural landscapes. In: Kellert SR, Wilson EO, eds. The Biophilia Hypothesis. Washington, DC: Island Press; 1993:73–137.
Larsen L, Adams J, Deal B, Kweon BS, Tyler E: Plants in the workplace. Env Behav. 1998;30:261–281.
Ulrich RS. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Science
McCarney SB. The Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES): Home Version Technical Manual. 2nd ed. Columbia, Mo: Hawthorne Educational Services; 1995.
Wells NM. At home with nature: effects of “greenness” on children’s cognitive functioning. Env Behav.
Kuo FE. Bridging the gap: how scientists can make a difference. In: Bechtel RB, Churchman A, eds. Handbook of Environmental Psychology. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Wiley; 2002.
Kuo FE, Sullivan WC, Coley R, Brunson L. Fertile ground for community: inner-city neighborhood common spaces. Am J Community Psychol.
Frumkin H. Beyond toxicity: human health and the natural environment. Am J Prev Med.
Ulrich RS. Effects of interior design on wellness: theory and recent scientific research. J Health Care Interior Design. 1991;3:97–109.
Wachs TD, Gruen G. Early Experience and Human Development. New York, NY: Plenum; 1982.
Baron RM, Kenny DA. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J Pers Soc Psychol.
Evans GW, Lepore SJ. Moderating and mediating processes in environment behavior research. In: Moore GT, Marans RW, eds. Advances in Environment, Behavior, and Design. Vol. 4. New York, NY: Plenum; 1997.
Earls M, Nelson G. The relationship between long term psychiatric clients’ psychological well being and their perceptions of housing and social support. Am J Community Psychol.
Evans GW, Saegert S. Residential crowding in the context of inner city poverty. In: Wapner S, Demick J, Minami H, Yamamoto T, eds. Theoretical Perspectives in Environment-Behavior Research. New York, NY: Plenum; 2000:247–268.
Lepore SJ, Evans GW, Palsane MN. Social hassles and chronic strains: a hierarchy of stressors? J Health Soc Behav.
Evans GW, Allen K, Tafalla R, O’Meara T. Multiple stressors: performance, psychophysiologic, and affective responses. J Environ Psychol.
Evans GW, Jacobs SV, Dooley C, Catalano R. The interaction of stressful life events and chronic strains on community mental health. Am J Community Psychol.
Kasl SW, Will J, White M, Marcuse P. Quality of the residential environment and mental health. In: Baum A, Singer JE, eds. Advances in Environmental Psychology. Vol. 1. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1982:1–30.
McCarthy P, Byrne D, Harrison S, Keithley J. Housing type, housing location, and mental health. Soc Psychiatry
Evans GW, Lercher P, Kofler W. Crowding and children’s mental health: the role of house type. J Environ Psychol.
Hassan R. Social and psychological implications of high population density. Civilization. 1976;26:9–28.
Mitchell RE. Some social implications of high density housing. Am Sociol Rev.
Ruback RB, Pandey J. Very hot and really crowded. Env Behav. 1992;24:527–554.
Maxwell LE. Multiple effects of home and day care crowding. Env Behav. 1996;28:494–511.
Gomez-Jacinto L, Hombrados-Mendieta I. Multiple effects of community and house-hold crowding. J Environ Psychol. 2002;22:223–246.
Frumkin H, Walker D. Minority workers and communities. In: Wallace R, ed. Maxcy Rosenau Last Public Health and Preventative Medicine. 14th ed. Stamford, Conn: Appleton and Lange; 1998:682–688.
Repetti RL, Taylor SE, Seeman TE. Risky families: family social environments and the mental and physical health of offspring. Psychol Bull.
Taylor SE, Repetti RL, Seeman TE. Health psychology: what is an unhealthy environment and how does it get under the skin? Annu Rev Psychol.
Evans GW, English K. The environment of poverty: multiple stressor exposure, psychophysiological stress, and socioemotional health. Child Dev.