, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 339-360
Date: 11 Jan 2014

Understanding and Assessing Traumatic Responses of Guilt, Shame, and Anger among Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults

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Abstract

Most individuals exposed to traumatic events do not develop long-term adverse outcomes such as PTSD or depression. Evidence is accumulating that feelings of guilt, shame, or anger that develop in reaction to the traumatic experience both during and after the event can play an important role in posttraumatic adjustment. What role these feelings might play as traumatic reactions, especially among children, adolescents, and young adults is discussed. Developmental and gender differences are considered. Issues surrounding assessment and available measurement tools are described in detail.