, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 249-256

Role of metabolic syndrome components in human immunodeficiency virus-associated stroke

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Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, including elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP), atherogenic dyslipidemia (elevated triglycerides [TRG]), abdominal obesity (increased body mass index [BMI]), glucose intolerance (elevated glucose [GLU]), and prothrombotic/inflammatory state (increases in uric acid [UA]), that are associated with increased risk of cerebrovascular disease. We studied if an association existed between MetS components and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cryptogenic strokes—those not caused by HIV complications, endocarditis, or stimulant abuse. We performed a retrospective case-control study. Eleven cryptogenic strokes were identified from 2346 HIV-infected (HFV+) participants. Each case was matched by age, sex, and date of stroke diagnosis to five HIV+ controls without stroke. Nonparametric stratified Wilcoxon ranked sum tests with subsequent mixed effect logistic regression determined the influence of each MetS component on HIV-associated cryptogenic stroke. Although each MetS component appeared higher for HIV+ cases with cryptogenic strokes than HIV+ controls, only MAP (odds ratio [OR] = 5.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15–28.3) and UA (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.06–3.32) were statistically different. A significantly higher percentage of HIV-associated cryptogenic stroke cases met criteria for MetS (4/11 = 36%) compared to HIV+ controls (6/55 = 11%). This observational study suggests a possible role for MetS components in HFV+ cryptogenic stroke cases. Although MetS is defined as a constellation of disorders, elevated hypertension and hyperuricemia may be involved in stroke pathogenesis. Reducing MetS component levels in HIV+ patients could therefore protect them from subsequent stroke.