, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 265-273

Prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive impairment, 1996 to 2002: Results from an urban observational cohort

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Abstract

To assess prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI), the authors performed a 7-year survey in the period 1996 to 2002. A total of 432 patients were examined. HIV-related NCI was diagnosed in 238 patients (55.1%), meeting the HIV dementia (HIV-D) criteria in 45 (10.4%). The prevalence of both NCI and HIV-D did not change significantly during the study period. Compared with patients without NCI, patients with NCI were older (40.4 versus 38.2 years; P = .003), had a higher prevalence of positive HCV serology (61.1% versus 38.9%; P = .003), and a lower nadir CD4 cell count (156 versus 222 cells/μl; P < .001). Compared with patients seen during 1996 to 1999, patients with NCI seen during 2000 to 2002 were older (40.7 versus 38.8 years; P = .004), had a less advanced disease stage (previous acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] 28.8% versus 65.7%; P < .001) and a higher nadir CD4 count (174 versus 132 cells/μl; P = .026). This study showed an unchanged prevalence of both HIV-related NCI and HIV-D in the period 1996 to 2002. The authors found evidences for new additional potential risk factors for HIV-related NCI (older age, lower nadir CD4 count, positive hepatitis C virus [HCV] serology), and for a change of risk factors for NCI in the late highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (older age, less advanced disease, higher nadir CD4 count).
This work was partially supported by Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Programma di Ricerca Nazionale sull’ AIDS, grants 30C.78 and 30D.81, and by Ministero dello Sanità, Programma di Ricerca Corrente degli I.R.C.C.S.