Journal of NeuroVirology

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 265–273

Prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive impairment, 1996 to 2002: Results from an urban observational cohort

Authors

    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Pietro Balestra
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Patrizia Lorenzini
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Rita Bellagamba
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Simonetta Galgani
    • Department of NeuroscienceSan Camillo Hospital
  • Angela Corpolongo
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Chrysoula Vlassi
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Dora Larussa
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Mauro Zaccarelli
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Pasquale Noto
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Ubaldo Visco-Comandini
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Marinella Giulianelli
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Giuseppe Ippolito
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Andrea Antinori
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
  • Pasquale Narciso
    • National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani
Article

DOI: 10.1080/13550280590952790

Cite this article as:
Tozzi, V., Balestra, P., Lorenzini, P. et al. Journal of NeuroVirology (2005) 11: 265. doi:10.1080/13550280590952790

Abstract

To assess prevalence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI), the authors performed a 7-year survey in the period 1996 to 2002. A total of 432 patients were examined. HIV-related NCI was diagnosed in 238 patients (55.1%), meeting the HIV dementia (HIV-D) criteria in 45 (10.4%). The prevalence of both NCI and HIV-D did not change significantly during the study period. Compared with patients without NCI, patients with NCI were older (40.4 versus 38.2 years; P = .003), had a higher prevalence of positive HCV serology (61.1% versus 38.9%; P = .003), and a lower nadir CD4 cell count (156 versus 222 cells/μl; P < .001). Compared with patients seen during 1996 to 1999, patients with NCI seen during 2000 to 2002 were older (40.7 versus 38.8 years; P = .004), had a less advanced disease stage (previous acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS] 28.8% versus 65.7%; P < .001) and a higher nadir CD4 count (174 versus 132 cells/μl; P = .026). This study showed an unchanged prevalence of both HIV-related NCI and HIV-D in the period 1996 to 2002. The authors found evidences for new additional potential risk factors for HIV-related NCI (older age, lower nadir CD4 count, positive hepatitis C virus [HCV] serology), and for a change of risk factors for NCI in the late highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (older age, less advanced disease, higher nadir CD4 count).

Keywords

highly active antiretroviral therapyHIV dementiaHIV infectionneurocognitive impairmentprevalence

Copyright information

© Journal of NeuroVirology, Inc. 2005