Neurotoxicity Research

, 4:147

The adrenochrome hypothesis of schizophrenia revisited

Authors

    • Department of Psychology, Center for Brain and CognitionUniversity of California at San Diego
    • Department of NeuropsychiatryInstitute of Neurology
Article

DOI: 10.1080/10298420290015827

Cite this article as:
Smythies, J. neurotox res (2002) 4: 147. doi:10.1080/10298420290015827

Abstract

This paper reviews the current status of the adrenochrome theory of schizophrenia. An account is first given of all the experiments in which adrenochrome was reported to induce psychotomimetic effects in normal volunteers. Then the evidence is presented that adrenochrome may actually occur in the brain as a metabolite of adrenaline in the C2 group of adrenergic neurons in the medulla, together with an account of current ideas of the function of these neurons in higher limbic functions. Lastly the recent evidence is reviewed that the gene for the enzyme glutathione S-transferase is defective in schizophrenia. This enzyme detoxifies adrenochrome.

Keywords

Schizophrenia adrenochrome adrenaline C1-C3 adrenergic nuclei neuromelanin

Copyright information

© Springer 2002