, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 49-54
Date: 01 Jan 2006

Eco-labeling, Product Category Rules and Certification Procedures Based on ISO 14025 Requirements (6 pp)

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Goal, Scope and Background

The goal of the present paper is to demonstrate how environmental product declarations (EPDs) are developed based on a set of product category rules (PCRs) in accordance with the requirements in the ISO 14025-standard. This is demonstrated by examples from the furniture industry in Norway, where several case models are evaluated. To ease the capability of developing EPDs in this industry, a database with specific environmental data for materials in furniture is developed. The database is used to produce the LCA for selected furniture models, and further, the database is the backbone of a data-assistance tool used to create the EPDs.


The LCA-data are produced based on traditional LCA-methodology. The PCR is based on a stakeholder analysis and the proposed methodology in the ISO 14025-standard. The EPDs developed so far, are results of close collaboration between companies and research centres in the Nordic countries. For the verification of the EPDs, auditing methodologies are used as a part of the audit of the companies' environmental management systems (EMS).

Results and Conclusion

Based on a hearing of a set of suggested PCRs, a consensus document for seating accommodation is developed. This is further the model for how to develop PCR-documents for all types of furniture, for example sleeping accommodations. Likewise, the database shall contain the most important data for the parts of a furniture model. Within the goal of the project period, EPDs will be developed for 80% of Norwegian furniture. The verification of the EPDs is done as a part of the certification procedures of EMS in accordance with the ISO 14001.

Recommendation and Perspective

The results presented in the paper are mainly for the pilot models in the project. However, the results will be further tested and the data-tool will be developed as a part of a product design tool where environmental requirements will be combined with quality requirements. The product design tool will be implemented in the furniture industry. Information on how to use EPDs in public purchasing will also be a part of future work.