Research Articles

Environmental Science and Pollution Research

, 10:162

First online:

Patterns of volatile metabolites and nonvolatile trichothecenes produced by isolates of Stachybotrys, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Trichothecium and Memnoniella

  • Ken WilkinsAffiliated withNational Institute of Occupational Health Email author 
  • , Kristian Fog NielsenAffiliated withDanish Building and Urban ResearchThe Mycology group, BioCentrum-DTU, Technical University of Denmark
  • , Sla Ud DinAffiliated withDepartment of Applied Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark

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We reported previously that trichodiene, a volatile trichothecene derivative, was produced by a Stachybotrys isolate, also known to produce highly cytotoxic, non-volatile, macrocyclic trichothecenes (satrotoxins). We investigated the relationship between the production of trichodiene and various non-volatile trichothecenes for several molds. Volatile metabolites were concentrated by adsorption on Tenax TA and analyzed by GC/MS, while non-volatile metabolites were separated by HPLC, derivatized and analyzed by GC/MS. Stachybotrys chartarum isolates producing macrocyclic trichothecenes secreted significantly larger amounts of trichodiene and other sesquiterpenes than isolates which only produced simple trichothecenes. The amounts of secreted trichodiene were relatively small in all cases.

With the exception of Memnoniella, which excreted small amounts of sesquiterpenes, the other isolates produced varying amounts of sesquiterpenes, including trichodiene, as well as simple tricothecenes, no detectable trichodiene, but large amounts of griseofulvin derivatives.

In Stachybotrys there is apparently a correlation between trichodiene and macrocyclic trichothecene production. In the remaining isolates, there was no simple relationship between trichodiene and non-volatile trichothecene synthesis.

Trichodiene is produced in larger amounts by Stachybotrys isolates, which also produce satratoxins, but it will be difficult to utilize this metabolite to detect toxic isolates in buildings due to the relatively small amounts excreted.


Fusarium Memnoniella mycotoxins satratoxin Stachybotrys Trichothecium Trichoderma trichodiene volatile metabolites