Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 675–696

The Globalization of Service Multinationals in the “Triad” Regions: Japan, Western Europe and North America

  • Jiatao Li
  • Stephen Guisinger

DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490283

Cite this article as:
Li, J. & Guisinger, S. J Int Bus Stud (1992) 23: 675. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490283


In this study we empirically investigate the determinants of foreign direct investment of service multinationals based in the “triad” regions: Japan, Western Europe and North America. Foreign investment decisions of 168 of the largest service firms in nine service industries over the period 1976–1986 are analyzed and hypotheses that are developed based on findings of manufacturing FDI and studies of single service industries are tested using a logistic regression model. The applicability of the MNE-FDI theories to service MNEs is tested empirically over a broad range of MNE home countries and service industries. Differences in the international behavior of service MNEs based in different countries are uncovered and analyzed.

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiatao Li
    • 1
  • Stephen Guisinger
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Hawaii at Manoa
  2. 2.University of Texas at Dallas