Product and Promotion Adaptation in Export Ventures: An Empirical Investigation
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- Cavusgil, S., Zou, S. & Naidu, G. J Int Bus Stud (1993) 24: 479. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8490242
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While the desirability of marketing adaptation vs. standardization has long been debated within both academic and business circles, empirical studies investigating the conditions under which each strategy becomes appropriate have been rare. This article provides a formal investigation of the correlates of product and promotion adaptation in export ventures. A conceptual framework of product and promotion adaptation in export ventures is proposed to integrate the diverse perspectives on the issue of standardization versus adaptation. The conceptual framework is further specified in a testable form and tested via data collected by a series of in-depth personal interviews with export marketing managers. The results support the contingency perspective recently emerging in the standardization literature, and suggest that the degree of the various aspects of product adaptation (i.e., upon and after entry) and promotion adaptation (i.e., positioning, packaging/labeling, and promotional approach) are significantly influenced by company, product/industry, and export market characteristics. However, the profile of the correlates varies across the various aspects of product and promotion adaptation.