Abo, T. 1996. The Japanese production system: The process of adaptation to national settings. In R. Boyer and D. Drache (Eds), States against markets: The limits of globalization: 136–155. London: Routledge.
Adler, P. S., Goldoftas, B., & Levine, D. I. 1999. Flexibility versus efficiency? A case study of model changeovers in the Toyota production system. Organization Science, 10(1): 43–69.CrossRef
Aoki, M. 1994. The Japanese firm as a system of attributes. In M. Aoki and R. Dore (Eds), The Japanese firm: 11–39. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Argyris, C., & Schön, D. A. 1978. Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Bhappu, A. 2000. The Japanese family: An institutional logic for Japanese corporate networks and Japanese management. Academy of Management Review, 25(2): 409–415.
Bartlett, C., & Ghoshal, S. 1989. Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Beamish, P., Hitt, M., Jackson, S. & Mathieu, J. 2005. Call for papers: Special research forum – Building bridges across levels. Academy of Management Journal, 48(2): 364–366.
Beechler, S., & Yang, J. Z. 1994. The transfer of Japanese-style management to American subsidiaries: Contingencies, constraints and competencies. Journal of International Business Studies, 25(3): 467–491.CrossRef
Beechler, S. L., & Bird, A. (Eds), 1999. Japanese multinationals abroad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Belderbos, R. 2003. Entry mode, organizational learning, and R&D in foreign affiliates: Evidence from Japanese firms. Strategic Management Journal, 24(3): 235–260.CrossRef
Bonner, J. M., & Walker Jr, O. C. 2004. Selecting influential business-to-business customers in new product development: Relational embeddedness and knowledge heterogeneity considerations. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(3): 155–169.CrossRef
Brouthers, K. D. 2002. Institutional, cultural and transaction cost influences on entry mode choice and performance. Journal of International Business Studies, 33(2): 203–221.CrossRef
Burns, T., & Stalker, G. M. 1961. The management of innovation. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.
Calori, R. 1999. National administrative heritages in borderless organizations. In R. H. Rosenfeld and D. C. Wilson (Eds), Managing organizations: Text, readings and cases: 481–491. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.
Clark, K. B., & Wheelwright, S. (Eds), 1995. The product development challenge. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Clegg, S., & Kono, T. 1998. Transformations of corporate culture: Experiences of Japanese enterprises. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter.
Collinson, S. 1999. Knowledge management capabilities for steel makers: A British–Japanese corporate alliance for organizational learning. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 11(3): 337–358.CrossRef
Collinson, S. 2001a. Knowledge management capabilities in R&D: A UK–Japan company comparison. R&D Management, 31(3): 335–347.CrossRef
Collinson, S. 2001b. Developing and deploying knowledge for innovation: British and Japanese corporations compared. International Journal of Innovation Management, 5(1): 73–103.
Collinson, S. C., & Wilson, D. C. 2006. Inertia in Japanese organizations: Knowledge management routines and failure to innovate. Organization Studies, 27(9): 1359–1387.CrossRef
Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2001. Survival and profitability: The roles of experience and intangible assets in foreign subsidiary performance. Academy of Management Journal, 44(5): 1028–1039.CrossRef
Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2004. Joint venture performance revisited: Japanese foreign subsidiaries worldwide. Management International Review, 44(1): 69–92.
Delios, A., & Beamish, P. W. 2005. Regional and global strategies of Japanese firms. Management International Review, 45(Special Issue 1): 19–36.
Delios, A., & Henisz, W. J. 2003. Policy uncertainty and the sequence of entry by Japanese firms, 1980–1998. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(3): 227–241.CrossRef
Donaldson, L. 1987. Strategy and structural adjustment to regain fit and performance: In defence of the contingency theory. Journal of Management Studies, 24(1): 1–24.CrossRef
Donaldson, L. 2001. The contingency theory of organizations. Sage, CA: Thousand Oaks.CrossRef
Dore, R. 1973. British factory, Japanese factory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Doz, Y. L., & Prahalad, C. K. 2005. Managing MNCs: A search for a new paradigm. In S. Ghoshal and E. Westney (Eds), Organization theory and the multinational corporation, (2nd ed.): 20–45. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Dyer, J. H. 1996a. Specialized supplier networks as a source of competitive advantage: Evidence from the auto industry. Strategic Management Journal, 17(4): 271–292.CrossRef
Dyer, J. H. 1996b. Does governance matter? Keiretsu alliances and asset specificity as sources of Japanese competitive advantage. Organization Science, 7(6): 649–667.CrossRef
Ellis, S., Almor, T., & Shenkar, O. 2002. Structural contingency revisited: Toward a dynamic system model. Emergence, 4(4): 51–85.CrossRef
Ethiraj, S. K., & Levinthal, D. 2004. Bounded rationality and the search for organizational architecture: An evolutionary perspective on the design of organizations and their evolvability. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49(3): 404–437.
Fiol, M. C., & Lyles, M. A. 1985. Organizational learning. Academy of Management Review, 10(4): 803–813.
Fleck, J. 2000. Artefact-activity: The co-evolution of artefacts, knowledge and organization in technological innovation. In J. Ziman (Ed.) Technological innovation as an evolutionary process: 248–266. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fruin, W. M. 1992. The Japanese enterprise system. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Fuji Chimera Research Institute 2005. Worldwide electronics market 2004: A comprehensive study. Tokyo: Fuji Chimera Research Institute.
Galbraith, J. R. 1973. Designing complex organizations. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Gerlach, M. L. 1992. Alliance capitalism: The social organization of Japanese business. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ghemawat, P. 2001. Distance still matters: The hard reality of global expansion. Harvard Business Review, 79(8): 137–147.
Ghemawat, P. 2003. Semiglobalization and international business strategy. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(2): 138–152.CrossRef
Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. 1977. The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5): 929–964.CrossRef
Henisz, W. J. 2002. Politics and international investment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Henisz, W. J., & Delios, A. 2001. Uncertainty, imitation, and plant location: Japanese multinational corporations, 1990–1996. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(3): 443–475.CrossRef
Hofstede, G. 1980. Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Hymer, S. H. 1960. The international operations of national firms: A study of direct foreign investment. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Jameson, M., Sullivan, M., & Constand, R. L. 2000. Ownership structure and performance of Japanese firms: Horizontal keiretsu, vertical keiretsu, and independents. Review of Pacific Basin Financial Markets & Policies, 3(4): 535–557.CrossRef
Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association 2004. The Motor Industry of Japan. Tokyo: JAMA. http://www.jama.or.jp
JBIC 2004. Survey report on overseas business operations by Japanese manufacturing companies. Tokyo: JBIC Institute, Japan Bank for International Cooperation. http://www.jbic.go.jp/english/research/report/review/pdf/report09.pdf
JETRO 2004. White paper on international trade and foreign direct investment. Tokyo: Japan External Trade Organisation. http://www.jetro.go.jp
. Accessed 4 August 2006.
Kojima, K. 2000. The “flying geese” model of Asian economic development: Origin, theoretical extensions, and regional policy implications. Journal of Asian Economics, 11(4): 375–401.CrossRef
Kumon, H. 1994. International transferability of the Japanese production system: Japanese-affiliated auto plants in the USA, the UK and Taiwan. Journal of International Economic Studies, 8(1): 59–78.
Laage-Hellman , 1997. Business networks in Japan: Supplier–customer interaction in product development. London: Routledge.CrossRef
Lam, A. 1997. Embedded firms, embedded knowledge: Problems of collaboration and knowledge transfer in global cooperative ventures. Organization Studies, 18(6): 973–996.CrossRef
Lam, A. 2000. Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: An integrated framework. Organization Studies, 21(3): 487–513.CrossRef
Landes, D. S. 1998. The wealth and poverty of nations. New York: Norton.
Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. 1967. Organization and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Levitt, T. 1983. The globalization of markets. Harvard Business Review, 61(3): 92–102.
Liker, J. K., Fruin, W. M., & Adler, P. S. (Eds), 1999. Remade in America: Transplanting and transforming Japanese management systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
McCormick, K. 1995. Career paths, technological obsolescence and skill formation: R&D staff in Britain and Japan. R&D Management, 25(2): 197–211.CrossRef
McGuire, J., & Dow, S. 2003. The persistence and implications of Japanese keiretsu organization. Journal of International Business Studies, 34(4): 374–389.CrossRef
METI 2004. Summary of the 2003 (35th) Survey of Trends in Business Activities of Foreign Affiliates. Tokyo: Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). http://www.meti.go.jp/english/statistics/downloadfiles/h2c201de.pdf
Miner, A. S., & Mezias, S. J. 1996. Ugly duckling no more: Pasts and futures of organizational learning research. Organization Science, 7(1): 88–99.CrossRef
Nachum, L. 2003. Liability of foreignness in global competition? Financial service affiliates in the City of London. Strategic Management Journal, 24(12): 1187–1208.CrossRef
Nadler, D. A., & Tushman, M. L. 1997. Competing by design. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Nelson, R. R., & Winter, S. G. 1982. An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Nippon Steel Corporation 2001. Annual Report. http://www0.nsc.co.jp/shinnihon_english/investor/pdf/2001e.pdf
.Accessed 8 June 2004.
Nippon Steel Corporation 2004. Annual Report. http://www0.nsc.co.jp/shinnihon_english/investor/pdf/2004e.pdf
.Accessed 24 June 2005.
Nishiguchi, T. (Ed.), 1996. Managing product development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nonaka, I., & Yonekura, S. 1982. Innovation through group dynamics: Organisational learning in JK activity at Nippon Steel's kimitsu works, Discussion Paper No.124, Institute of Business Research, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo.
Pennings, J. M. 1987. Structural contingency theory: A multivariate test. Organization Studies, 8(3): 223–240.CrossRef
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. 1978. The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper & Row.
Porter, M. E. 1990. The competitive advantage of nations. New York: Macmillan.CrossRef
Redding, G. 2005. The thick description and comparison of societal systems of capitalism. Journal of International Business Studies, 36(2): 123–155.CrossRef
Rugman, A. M. 1981. Inside the multinationals: The economics of internal markets. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rugman, A. M. 2005. The regional multinationals. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Rugman, A., & Verbeke, A. 1992. A note on the transnational solution and the transaction cost theory of multinational strategic management. Journal of International Business Studies, 23(4): 761–771.CrossRef
Rugman, A., & Verbeke, A. 1998. Corporate strategies and environmental regulations: An organizing framework. Strategic Management Journal, 19(4): 363–375.CrossRef
Rugman, A., & Verbeke, A. 2001. Subsidiary-specific advantages in multinational enterprises. Strategic Management Journal, 22(3): 237–250.CrossRef
Rugman, A., & Verbeke, A. 2002. Edith Penrose's contribution to the resource-based view of strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 23(8): 769–780.CrossRef
Rugman, A., & Verbeke, A. 2004. A perspective on regional and global strategies of multinational enterprises. Journal of International Business Studies, 35(1): 3–18.CrossRef
Sakakibara, K., & Westney, E. D. 1985. Comparative study of the training, careers, and organisation of engineers in the computer industry in the United States and Japan. Hitotsubashi Journal of Commerce and Management, 20(1): 1–20.
Sako, M. 1992. Prices, quality and trust: Inter-firm relations in Britain and Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Sako, M. 1997. Japanese labour and management in transition: Diversity, flexibility and participation. London: Routledge.
Schoonhoven, C. B. 1981. Problems with contingency theory: Testing assumptions hidden within the language of contingency “theory”. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(3): 349–377.CrossRef
Shiba, T., & Shimotani, M. (Eds), 1997. Beyond the firm: Business groups in international and historical perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Simon, H. A. 1957. Administrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organization, (2nd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Sumitomo Chemical 2004. Annual Report: Becoming a Truly Global Chemical Company. http://www.sumitomo-chem.co.jp/english/ir/pdf/annual/ar2004_e.pdf
Tallman, S. B., & Yip, G. S. 2001. Strategy and the multinational enterprise. In A. M. Rugman and T. Brewer (Eds), The Oxford handbook of international business: 317–348. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Tsurumi, Y. 1976. The Japanese are coming: A multinational interaction of firms and politics. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
Tushman, M. L., & Romanelli, E. 1985. Organizational evolution: A metamorphosis model of convergence and reorientation. In L. L. Cummings and B. M. Staw (Eds), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 7, 171–222. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Westney, E. 1999. Changing perspectives on the organization of Japanese multinational companies. In S. L. Beechler and A. Bird (Eds), Japanese multinationals abroad: 11–29. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Westney, E. 2001. Japan. In A. M. Rugman and T. Brewer (Eds), The Oxford handbook of international business: 623–651. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. 1990. The machine that changed the world. New York: Macmillan.
Yip, G. 2002. Total global strategy II. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Yonekura, S. 1994. The Japanese iron and steel industry, 1850–1990. New York: St Martin's Press.CrossRef
Yoshino, M. Y. 1968. Japan's managerial system: Tradition and innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Zaheer, S. 1995. Overcoming the liability of foreignness. Academy of Management Journal, 38(2): 347–363.CrossRef