Journal of International Business Studies

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 357–378

Culture and international business: recent advances and their implications for future research

  • Kwok Leung
  • Rabi S Bhagat
  • Nancy R Buchan
  • Miriam Erez
  • Cristina B Gibson

DOI: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400150

Cite this article as:
Leung, K., Bhagat, R., Buchan, N. et al. J Int Bus Stud (2005) 36: 357. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400150


The paper provides a state-of-the-art review of several innovative advances in culture and international business (IB) to stimulate new avenues for future research. We first review the issues surrounding cultural convergence and divergence, and the processes underlying cultural changes. We then examine novel constructs for characterizing cultures, and how to enhance the precision of cultural models by pinpointing when cultural effects are important. Finally, we examine the usefulness of experimental methods, which are rarely used by IB researchers. Implications of these path-breaking approaches for future research on culture and IB are discussed.


culture and international businessconvergence and divergence of culturescultural changecultural dimensionscross-cultural experiments

Copyright information

© Academy of International Business 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwok Leung
    • 1
  • Rabi S Bhagat
    • 2
  • Nancy R Buchan
    • 3
  • Miriam Erez
    • 4
  • Cristina B Gibson
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ManagementCity University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong
  2. 2.University of MemphisMemphisUSA
  3. 3.University of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  4. 4.Technion-Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  5. 5.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA