Abate T., van Huis A., Ampofo J.K.O. (2000) Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: An African perspective, Annu. Rev. Entomol. 45, 631–659.PubMed
Alemu G., Bayu W. (2005) Effects of farmyard manure and combined N and P fertilizer on sorghum and soil characteristics in northeastern Ethiopia, J. Sustain. Agric. 26, 23.
Amalu U.C. (2002) Food security: sustainable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa, Outlook Agr. 31, 177–185.
Andrianov B.V. (1989) The ancient irrigation systems or the Aral Sea Region, Études Rurales 115–116, 177–193.
Aune J., Lal R. (1998) Agricultural productivity in the tropics and critical limits of properties of Oxisols, Ultisols, and Alfisols, Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 74, 96–103.
Baker J.M., Ochsner T.E., Venterea R.T., Griffs T.J. (2007) Tillage and soil carbon sequestration: What do we really know? Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 118, 1–5.
Basamba T.A., Barrios E., Amezquita E., Rao I.M., Singh B.R. (2006) Tillage effects on maize yield in a Colombian savanna Oxisol: Soil organic matter and P fractions, Soil Till. Res. 91, 131–142.
Battershill M.R.J., Gilg A.W. (1998) Traditional low-intensity farming: evidence of the role of vente directe in supporting such farms in northwest France, and some implication for conservation policy, J. Rural Studies 14, 475–486.
Bayer C. (2006) Carbon sequestration in two Brazilian Cerrado soils under no-till, Soil Till. Res. 86, 237–245.
Berger G.W. (2004) “Photonic dating of prehistoric irrigation canals of Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.A.”, Geoarchaeology — An International Journal 19, 381.
Bescansa P., Imaz M.J., Virto I., Enrique A., Hoogmoed W.B. (2006) Soil water retention as affected by tillage and residue management in semiarid Spain, Soil Till. Res. 87, 19–27.
Bessam F., Mrabet R. (2003) Long-term changes in soil organic matter under conventional tillage and no-tillage systems in semiarid Morocco, Soil Use Manage. 19, 139–143.
Blanco-Canqui H., Lal R. (2007) Soil and crop response to harvesting corn residues for biofuel production, Geoderma 141, 355–362.
Blanco-Canqui H., Lal R. (2008) No-tillage and soil profile carbon sequestration: an on-farm assessment, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 72, 693–701.
Blanco-Canqui H., Lal R., Owens L.B., Post W.M., Shipitalo M.J. (2007) Soil hydraulic properties influenced by stover removal from no-till corn in Ohio, Soil Till. Res. 92, 144–154.
Borlaug N. (2007) Feeding a hungry world, Science 318, 359.PubMed
Bostick W.M., Bado V.B., Bationo A., Soler C.T., Hoogenboom G., Jones J.W. (2007) Soil carbon dynamics and crop residue yields of cropping systems in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Burkina Faso, Soil Till. Res. 93, 138–151.
Broecker W.S. (2007) CO2
arithmetic, Science 315, 1371.PubMed
Brown L.R. (2008) Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008, Earth Policy Institute, 24th January 2008, New York, NY.
Brye K.R., Cordell M.L., Longer D.E., Gbur E.E. (2006) Residue management practice effects on soil surface properties in a young wheat-soybean double-crop system, J. Sustain. Agr. 29, 121–150.
Bunney S. (1990) Prehistoric farming caused devastating soil-erosion, New Scientist 125, 29.
Campbell C.A., Vanden Bygaart A.J., Zentner R.P., McConkey B.G., Smith W., Lemke R., et al. (2007) Quantifying carbon sequestration in a minimum tillage crop rotation study in semiarid southwester Saskatchewan, Can. J. Soil Sci. 87, 235–250.
Canadell J.G., Le Quéré C., Raupach M.R., Field C.B., Buitenhuis E.T., Clais P., et al. (2007) Contributions to acceleration atmospherics CO2 growth from economic activity carbon intensity and efficiency of natural sinks, Available from URL: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1973/pnas.0702737104.
Chan K.Y., van Zwieten L., Meszaros I., Downie A., Joseph S. (2007) Agronomic value of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment, Aust. J. Soil Res. 45, 629–634.
Chen D., Molina J.A.E., Clapp C.E., Venterea R.T., Palazzo A.J. (2005) Corn root influence on automated measurement of soil carbon dioxide concentrations, Soil Sci. 170, 779–787.
Chokor B.A., Odemerho F.O. (1994) Land degradation assessment by small-scale traditional African farmers and implications for sustainable conservation management, Geoforum 25, 145–154.
Clawson M. (1979) Forest in the long sweep of American history, Science 204, 1168–1174.PubMed
Clement R.M., Horn S.P. (2001) Pre-Columbian land-use history in Costa Rica: a 3000-year record of forest clearance, agriculture and fires from Laguna Zoncho, Holocene 11, 419–426.
Cline W.R. (2007) Global warming and agriculture, Center for Global Development, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC, 186 p.
Cochran R.L., Collins H.P., Kennedy A., Bezdicek D.F. (2007) Soil carbon pools and fluxes after land conversion in a semiarid shrubsteppe ecosystem, Biol. Fert. Soils 43, 479–489.
Coppens F., Garnier P., De Gryze S., Merckx R., Recous S. (2006) Soil moisture, carbon and nitrogen dynamics following incorporation and surface application of labeled crop residues in soil columns, Eur. J. Soil Sci. 57, 894–905.
Dakora F.D., Keya S.O. (1997) Contribution of legume nitrogen fixation to sustainable agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, Soil Biol. Biochem. 29, 5–6; 809–817.
De Bona F.D., Bayer C., Bergamaschi H., Dieckow J. (2006) Soil organic carbon in sprinkler irrigation systems under no-till and conventional tillage, Revista Brasileira De Ciencia Do Solo 30, 911–919.
De Gryze S., Six J., Merckx R. (2006) Quantifying water-stable soil aggregate turnover and its implication for soil organic matter dynamics in a model study, Eur. J. Soil Sci. 57, 693–707.
den Biggelaar C., Lal R., Wiebe K., Eswaran H., Breneman V. (2003a) The global impact of soil erosion on productivity. I. Absolute and relative erosion-induced yield losses, Adv. Agron. 81, 1–48.
den Biggelaar C., Lal R., Wiebe K., Eswaran H., Breneman V. (2003b) The global impact of soil erosion and productivity. II. Effects on crop yield and production over time, Adv. Agron. 81, 49–95.
Derpsch R. (2007) No-tillage and conservation agriculture, in: Goddard T., Zoebirsh M., Gan Y., Ellis W., Watson A., Sombatpanit S. (Eds.), “No-till Farming Systems”, WASWC Special Publ. #3, Bangkok, Thailand, pp. 7–39.
Diamond J.R. (2004) Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, New York: Viking Adult.
Dickens A.F., Gelinas Y., Masiello C.A., Wakeham S., Hedges J.I. (2004) Reburial of fossil carbon in marine sediments, Nature 427, 336–339.PubMed
Dou F.G., Hons F.M. (2006) Tillage and nitrogen effects on soil organic matter fractions in wheat-based systems, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70, 1896–1905.
Duncan A. (1998) The food security challenge for southern Africa, Food Policy 23, 459–475.
Dyson F.J. (1977) Can we control the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? Energy 2, 287–291.
Eickhout B., Bouwman A.F., van Zeijts H. (2006) The role of nitrogen in world food production and environmental sustainability, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 116, 4–14.
Elder J.W., Lal R. (2008a) Tillage effects on physical properties of agricultural organic soils of north central Ohio, Soil Till. Res. 98, 208–210.
Elder J.W., Lal R. (2008b) Tillage effects on gaseous emissions from an intensively farmed organic soil in north central Ohio, Soil Till. Res. 98, 45–55.
Ellis E.C., Wang S.M. (1997) Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 61, 177–193.
Erickson C.L. (1992) Prehistoric landscape management in the Andean Highlands — Raised field agriculture and its environmental-impact, Population Environ. 13, 285–300.
FAO (1953–2004) Production Yearbooks, FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (2004) Production Year Book, FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (2006) The State of Food Security in the World, FAO, Rome, Italy.
FAO (2007) The State of Food and Agriculture: Paying farmers for environmental services, FAO, Rome, Italy.
Flugge F., Abadi A. (2006) Farming carbon: an economic analysis of agroforestry for carbon sequestration and dryland salinity reduction in Western Australia, Agroforest. Syst. 68, 181–192.
Fowles M. (2007) Black carbon sequestration as an alternative to bioenergy, Biomass Bioenerg. 31, 426–432.
Gbetibouo G.A., Hassan R.M. (2005) Measuring the economic impact of climate change on major South African field crops: a Ricardian approach, Global Planet. Change 47, 143–152.
Gesch R.W., Reicosky D.C., Gilbert R.A., Morris D.R. (2007) Influence of tillage and plant residue management on respiration of a Florida Everglades Histosol, Soil Till. Res. 92, 156–166.
Ghosh P.K., Manna M.C., Dayal D., Wanjari R.H. (2006) Carbon sequestration potential and sustainable yield index for groundnut- and fallow-based cropping systems, J. Agr. Sci. 144, 249–259.
Gladwin C.H., Thomson A.M., Peterson J.S., Anderson A.S. (2001) Addressing food security in Africa via multiple livelihood strategies of women farmers, Food Policy 26, 177–207.
Gleason R.A., Euliss N.H., McDougal R.L., Kermes K.E., Steadman E.N. (2005) Potential of restored prairie wetlands in the glaciated North American prairie to sequester atmospheric carbon. Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership Topical Repot August 2005, Energy and Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
Goldemberg J. (2007) Ethanol for sustainable energy future, Science 315, 808–810.PubMed
Goldemberg J., Johansson T.B., Reddy A.K.N., Williams R.H. (2004) A global clean cooking fuel initiative, Energ. Sustain. Dev. 8, 5–12.
Goman M., Byrne R. (1998) A 5000 year record of agriculture and tropical forest clearance in the Tuxtdas, Veracruz, Mexico, Holocene 8, 83–89.
Goulding K., Jarvis S., Whitmore A. (2007) Optimizing nutrient management for farm systems, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2177.
Govaerts B., Sayre K.D., Ceballos-Ramirez J.M., Luna-Guido M.L., Limon-Ortega A., Deckers J., Dendooven L. (2006) Conventionally tilled and permanent raised beds with different crop residue management: Effects on soil C and N dynamics. Plant Soil 280, 143.
Govaerts B., Sayre K.D., Lichter K., Dendooven L., Deckers J. (2007) Influence of permanent raised bed planting and residue management on physical and chemical soil quality in rain fed maize/wheat systems, Plant Soil 291, 39–54.
Grandy A.S., Robertson G.P. (2007) Land-use intensity effects on soil organic carbon accumulation rates and mechanisms, Ecosystems 10, 58–73.
Gregorich E.G., Beare M.H., Mckim U.F., Skjemstad J.O. (2006) Chemical and biological characteristics of physically uncomplexed organic matter, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70, 975–985.
Groenfeldt D. (1991) Building on tradition: indigenous irrigation knowledge and sustainable development in Asia, Agr. Human Values 8, 114–120.
Hao Y., Lal R., Owens L., Izaurralde R.C., Post M., Hothem D. (2002) Effects of cropland management and slope position on soil organic carbon pools at the North Appalachian Experimental Watersheds, Soil Till. Res. 68, 83–88.
Hart J.F. (1968) Loss and abandonment of cleared farmland in the Eastern U.S., Ann. Assoc. Am. Geographers 58, 417–440.
Hartshorn A.S., Chadwick O.A., Vitousek P.M., Kirch P.V (2006) Prehistoric agricultural depletion of soil nutrients in Hawaii, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 11092–11097.PubMed
Hazell P., Wood S. (2007) Drivers of change in global agriculture, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2166.
Henao J., Baanante C. (2006) Agricultureal production and soil nutrient mining in Africa: Implications for resource conservation and policy development, IFDC, Muscle Shoals, Al (http://www.ifdc.org).
Highman C.F.W., Kijngam A., Manly B.F.J., Moore S.J.E. (1981) The bovid third phalanx and prehistoric ploughing, J. Archaeologic. Sci. 8, 353–365.
Hillocks R.J., Logan J.W.M., Riches C.R., Russellsmith A. (1996a) Soil pests in traditional farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa — A review. 1. Problems, Int. J. Pest Manage. 42, 241–251.
Hillocks R.J., Logan J.W.M., Riches C.R., Russellsmith A., Shaxson L.J. (1996b) Soil pests in traditional farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa — A review. 2. Management strategies, Int. J. Pest Manage. 42, 253–265.
Hobbs P.R., Sayre K., Gupta R. (2007) The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2169.
Horrocks M., Shane P.A., Barber I.G., D’Costa D.M., Nichol S.L. (2004) Microbotanical remains reveal Polynesian agriculture and mixed cropping in early New Zealand, Res. Paleaobot. Polynol. 131, 147–157.
Houghton R.A., Hackler J.L. (2002) Carbon flux to the atmosphere from land use change (http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/lan-duse/Houghton/Houghton.html).
Hoyos C., Blas J. (2008) West rethinks strategic threats, Financial Times, 22 June 2008.
Hubbard M., Merlo N., Maxwell S., Caputo E. (1992) Regional Food Security Strategies — The Case of Igadd in the Horn of Africa, Food Policy 17, 7–22.
Hulse J.H. (2004) Symposium 5: Integrated food systems for food security in a changing world environment — SY 5-1: Integrated food systems and the urbanization of Asian and Africa, J. Food Sci. 69, R130-R132.
IFDC (2004) Global and regional data on fertilizer production and consumption 1961/62-2002/03. IFDC, Muscle Shoals, AL, 73 p.
IFDC (2006) African soil exhaustion, Science 312, 31.
IPCC (2000) Land Use Change and Forestry, A Special Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Izaurralde R.C., Williams J.R., Post W.M., Thomson A.M., McGill W.B., Owens L.B., Lal R. (2007) Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale, Climatic Change 80, 73–90.
Jagdemme S., Lal R., Hoeft R.G., Nafziger E.D., Adee E.A. (2008) Nitrogen fertilization and cropping systems impacts on soil properties and their relationship with yield in central Corn Belt U.S.A., Soil Till. Res. 98, 120–129.
Janzen H.H. (2006) The soil carbon dilemma: shall we hoard it or use it, Soil Biol. Biochem. 38, 419–424.
Jaycinthe P.A., Lal R., Kimble J.M. (2002) effects of wheat residue fertilization on accumulation and biochemical attributes of organic carbon in central Ohio, Soil Sci. 167, 750–758.
Jenny H. (1980) Alcohol or humus? Science 1, 444.
Johnson J.M.F., Allmaras R.R., Reicosky D.C. (2006) Estimating source carbon from crop residues, roots and rhizodeposits using the national grain-yield database, Agron. J. 98, 622–636.
Johnson J.M.F., Barbour N.W., Weyers S.L. (2007) Chemical composition of crop biomass impacts its decomposition, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71, 155–162.
Jones P.G., Thornton P.K. (2003) The potential impacts of climate change on maize production in Africa and Latin America in 2055, Global Environ. Chang. 13, 51–59.
Kennedy D. (2007) The biofuel conundrum, Science 316, 315.
Khan S.A., Mulvaney R.L., Ellsworth T.R., Boast C.W. (2007) The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration, J. Environ. Qual. 36, 1821–1832.PubMed
Kiers E.T., Leakey R.R.B., Izec A.M., Heinemann J.A., Rosenthal E., Nathan D., Jiggins J. (2008) Agriculture at a crossroads, Science 320, 320–321.PubMed
Kihanda F.M., Warren G.P., Micheni A.N. (2006) Effect of manure application on crop yield and soil chemical properties in a long-term field trial of semi-arid Kenya, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 76, 341–354.
King J.A., Bradley R.I., Harrison R., Carter A.D. (2004) Carbon sequestration and saving potential associated with changes to the management of agricultural soils in England, Soil Use Manage. 20, 394–402. Kitzes J., Wackernagel M., Loh J., Peller A., Goldfinger S., Cheng
D., Tea K. (2007) Shrink and Share: humanity’s present and future Ecological Footprint, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2164.
Knauss J. (2000) The prehistoric water management and land reclamation system in the Kopais-Basin, Boiotia, middle Greece, IDIC J. 49, 39–48.
Knorzer K.N. (2000) 3000 years of agriculture in a valley of the high Himalayas, Veg. Hist. Archaeobot. 9, 219–222.
Kravchenko A.G., Thelen K.D. (2007) Effect of winter wheat crop residue on no-till corn growth and development, Agron. J. 99, 549–555.
Kurukulasuriya P., Mendelsohn R., Hassna R., Benhin J., Deressa T., Diop M., Eid H.M., Fosu K.Y., Gbetibouo G., Jain S., Mahamadou A., Mano R., Kabubo-Mariara J., El-Marsafawy S., Molua E., Ouda S., Ouedraogo M., Sene I., Maddison D., Seo S.N., Dinar A. (2006) Will African agriculture survive climate change? World Bank Econom. Rev. 20, 367–388.
Laird D.A. (2008) The charcoal vision: a win-win-win scenario for simultaneously producing bioenergy, permanently sequestering carbon while improving soil and water quality, Agron. J. 178–181.
Lal R. (1976) No-tillage effects on soil properties and different crops in Western Nigeria, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 40, 762–768.
Lal R. (1987) Effects of soil erosion on crop productivity, Crit. Res. Plant Sci. 5, 303–368.
Lal R. (1989) Conservation tillage for sustainable agriculture, Adv. Agron. 42, 85–197.
Lal R. (1998) Soil erosion impact on agronomic productivity and environment quality, Crit. Res. Plant Sci. 17, 319–464.
Lal R. (1999) Soil management and restoration for C sequestration to mitigate the accelerated greenhouse effect, Prog. Environ. Sci. 1, 307–326.
Lal R. (2003) Soil erosion and the carbon budget, Environ. Int. 13, 437–450.
Lal R. (2004) Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security, Science 304, 1623–1627.PubMed
Lal R. (2006) Enhancing crop yield in the developing countries through restoration of soil organic carbon pool in agricultural lands, Land Degrad. Dev. 17, 187–209.
Lal R. (2006) Managing soils for feeding a global population of 10 billion, J. Sci. Food Agr. 86, 2273–2284.
Lal R. (2007) Soil science and the carbon civilization, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71, 1095–1108.
Lal R., Reicosky D.C., Hanson J. (2007) History of plowing over 10000 years, Soil Till. Res. 93, 1–12.
Lane C.S., Horu S.P., Mora C.I. (2004) Stable carbon isotope ration in lake and swamp sediments as a proxy for pre-historic forest clearance and crop cultivation in the neotropics, J. Paleolimnol. 32, 375–381.
Lange C.H. (1992) Canal Irrigation in Prehistoric Mexico — The Sequence of Technological — Change — Doolittle, WE, New Mexico Historic. Rev. 67, 194–195.
Lehmann J., Gaunt J., Rondon M. (2006) Biochar sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems-a review, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11, 395–419.
Lepofsky D. (1995) A radio carbon chronology of pre-historic agriculture in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, Radiocarbon 37, 917–930.
Li H., Parent L.E., Karam A., Tremblay C. (2004) Potential of Sphagum peat for improving soil organic matter, water holding capacity, bulk density and potato yield in a sandy soil, Plant Soil 265, 355–365.
Li W.M., Min Q.W. (1999) Integrated farming systems an important approach toward sustainable agriculture in China, Ambio 28, 655–662.
Liang B.C., Campbell C.A., McConkey B.G., Padbury G., Collas P. (2005) An empirical model for-estimating carbon sequestration on the Canadian prairies, Can. J. Soil Sci. 85, 549–556.
Lieth H., Whittaker R.H. (1975) Primary productivity of the biosphere, Springer, New York.
Lima H.N., Schaefer C.E.R., Mello J.W.V., Gilkes R.J., Ker J.C. (2002) Pedogenesis and pre-Columbian land use of “Terra Preta Anthrosols” (Indian Black Earth) of western Amazonia, Geoderma 110, 1–17.
Lin J.C.M. (2006) Development of a high yield and low cycle time biomass char production system, Fuel Process. Technol. 87, 487–495.
Lobell D.B., Burke M.B., Tebaldi C., Mastrandea M.D., Falcon W.P., Naylor R.L. (2008) Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030, Science 319, 607–610.PubMed
Lugato E., Berti A., Giardini L. (2006) Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics with and without residue incorporation in relation to different nitrogen fertilization rates, Geoderma 135, 315–321.
Machado S., Rhinhart K., Petrie S. (2006) Long-term cropping system effects on carbon sequestration in eastern Oregon, J. Environ. Qual. 35, 1548–1553.PubMed
Malhi S.S., Lemke R., Wang Z.H., Chhabra B.S. (2006) Tillage, nitrogen and crop residue effects on crop yield, nutrient uptake, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions, Soil Till. Res. 90, 171–183.
Mandal B., Majumder B., Bandyopadhyay P.K., Hazra G.C., Gangopadhyay A., Chaudhury J., Saha M.N., Kundu S. (2007) The potential of cropping systems and soil amendments for carbon sequestration in soils under long-term experiments in subtropical India, Global Change Biol. 13, 357–369.
Mando A., Ouattara B., Somado A.E., Stroosnijder M.C.S., Breman H. (2005) Long-term effects of fallow, tillage and manure application on soil organic matter and nitrogen fractions and on sorghum yield under Sudano-Sahelian conditions, Soil Use Manage. 21, 25–31.
Mando A., Bonzi M., Wopereis M.C.S., Lompo F., Stroosnijder L. (2005) Long-term effects of mineral and organic fertilization on soil organic matter fractions and sorghum yield under Sudano-Sahelian conditions, Soil Use Manage. 21, 396–401.
Manguiat I.J., Rocamora P.M. (2004) Crop yields and dynamics on soil organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, microbial biomass N and microorganisms as influenced by bio-organics, Philippine Agric. Scientist 87, 383–395.
Mann C.C. (2002) The real dirt on rainforest fertility, Science 297, 920–923.PubMed
Marris E. (2006) Putting the carbon back: black is the new green, Nature 442, 624–626.PubMed
Martin-Rueda I., Munoz-Guerra L.M., Yunta F., Esteban E., Tenorio J.L., Lucena J.J. (2007) Tillage and crop rotation effects on barley yield and soil nutrients on a Calciortidic Haploxeralf, Soil Till. Res. 92, 1–9.
Masri Z., Ryan J. (2006) Soil organic matter and related physical properties in a Mediterranean wheat-based rotation trial, Soil Till. Res. 87, 146–154.
Masse W.B. (1981) Prehistoric irrigation systems in the Salt River Valley, Arizona, Science USA 214, 408–415.
McCalla A.F. (1999) Prospects for food security in the 21st Century: with special emphasis on Africa, Agr. Econ. 20, 95–103.
McCoy M.D., Hartshorn A.S. (2007) Wind erosion and intensive prehistoric agriculture: a case study from the Kalaupapa field systems, Molokai Island, Hawaii, Geoarchaeology 22, 511–532.
Meadows M.E. (2003) Soil erosion in the Swartland, Western Cape Province, South Africa: implications of past and present policy and practice, Environ. Sci. Policy 6, 17–28.
Mechado S., Rhinhart K., Petrie S. (2006) Long-term cropping system effects on carbon sequestration in eastern Oregon, J. Environ. Qual. 35, 1548–1553.
Michels K., Bielders C.L. (2006) Pearl millet growth on an erosion-affected soil in the Sahel, Exp. Agr. 42, 1–17.
Miller F.P., Mail M.K. (1995) Soil, land use and sustainable agriculture: a review, Can. J. Soil Sci. 75, 413–422.
Moccia S., Chlesa A., Oberti A., Tittonell P.A. (2006) Yield and quality of sequentially grown cherry tomato and lettuce under long-term conventional, low-input and organic soil management systems, Eur. J. Hort. Sci. 71, 183–191.
Morari F., Logato E., Berti A., Giardini L. (2006) Long-term effects of recommended management practices on soil carbon changes and sequestration in north-eastern Italy, Soil Use Manage. 22, 71–81.
Morris E. (2006) Black is the new green, Nature 442, 624–626.
Nieuwoudt W.L., Vink N. (1989) The effects of increased earnings from traditional agriculture in southern-Africa, South African J. Econ. 57, 257–269.
Nordt L.F. Hayashida, Hallmark T., Crawford C. (2004) Late prehistoric soil fertility, irrigation management, and agricultural production in northwest coastal Peru, Geoarchaeology — An International Journal 19, 21–46.
Normile D. (2008) As food prices rise, U.S. support for agricultural centers wilts, Science 320, 303.PubMed
Nye P., Greenland D.G. (1958) Soils Under Shifting Cultivation, Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, Harpenden, England.
Nyssen J., Poesen J., Gebremichael D., Vancamenhout K., D’Aes M., Yihdego G., Govers G., Leirs H., Moeyersons J., Naudts J., Haregeweyn N., Haile M., Deckers J. (2007) Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia, Soil Till. Res. 94, 151–163.
Oniang’o R., Allotey J., Malaba S.J. (2004) Contribution of indigenous knowledge and practices in food technology to the attainment of food security in Africa, J. Food Sci. 69, R87-R91.
Ortega R.A., Westfall D.G., Peterson G.A. (2005) Climatic gradient, cropping system, and crop residue impacts on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in no-till soils, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant 36, 2875–2887.
Otsuka K. (2006) Why can’t we transform traditional agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa? Rev. Agr. Econ. 28, 332–337.
Ouedraogo E., Mando A., Brussaard L., Stroosnijder L. (2007) Tillage and fertility management effects on soil organic matter and sorghum yield in semi-arid West Africa, Soil Till. Res. 94, 64–74.
Oyedele D.J., Aina P.O. (2006) Response of soil properties and maize yield to simulated erosion by artificial topsoil removal, Plant Soil 284, 375–384.
Pacala S., Socolow R. (2004) Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies, Science 305, 968–972.PubMed
Palacios-Fest M.R., Mabry J.B., Nialis J.F., Holmlund J.P., Miksa E., Davis O.K. (2001) Early irrigation systems in southeaster Arizona: the ostracode perspective, J. South Am. Earth Sci. 14, 541–555.
Papiernik S.K., Lindstrom M.J., Schumacher J.A., Farenhorst A., Stephens K.D., Schumacher T.E., Lobb D.A. (2005) Variation in soil properties and crop yield across an eroded prairie landscape, J. Soil Water Conserv. 60, 388–395.
Park C.C. (1983) Paleohydrologic reconstruction from stratigraphic evidence — a case study from prehistoric irrigation canals in Peru, J. Geol. Soc. 140, 321.
Parry M., Rosenzweig C., Livermore M. (2005) Climate change, and risk global food supply of hunger, Philos. T. R. Soc. B-Biological Sciences 360, 2125–2138.
Paudel K.P., Lohr L., Cabrera M. (2006) Residue management systems and their implications for production efficiency, Renew. Agr. Food Syst. 21, 124–133.
Pieri C. (1991) Fertility of Soils: A future for farming in the West African Savanna, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Poincelot R. (2004) Newswatch, J. Sustain. Agr. 23, 3.
Pollock C., Pretty J., Crute I., Leaver C., Dalton H. (2007) Introduction. Sustainable Agriculture, Philos. T. R. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2193.
Potter C., Klooster S., Hiatt S., Fladeland M., Genovese V., Gross P., Potter C. (2007) Satellite-derived estimates of potential carbon sequestration through afforestation of agricultural lands in the United States, Climatic Change 80, 323–336.
Premathilake R. (2006) Relationship of environmental changes in central Sri Lanka to possible pre-historic land-use and climate changes, Palaeogeogr. Paleaocl. 240, 468–496.
Pretty J. (2007) Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence, Philos. T. R. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2163.
Prudencio Y.C., Alhassan R. (1994) The Food Security Stabilization Roles of Cassava in Africa, Food Policy 19, 57–64.
Puget P., Lal R. (2005) Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in a mollisol in central Ohio as affected by tillage and land uses, Soil Till. Res. 80, 201–213.
Pupiro L.A., Vilches E., Nunez E., Gomez J., Baez M., Leon P. (2004) Effect of soil worm humus on yield and the main insect pests in bean crop, Cultivos Tropicales 25, 89–95.
Qian Y.L. (2003) Assessing soil carbon sequestration in turfgrass systems using long-term soil testing data, Agron. J. 94, 930–935.
Quiroga A., Funaro D., Noellemeyer E., Peinemann N. (2006) Barley yield response to soil organic matter and texture in the Pampas of Agrentina, Soil Till. Res. 90, 63–68.
Razafimbelo T., Barthes B., Larre-Larrouy M.C., De Luca E.F., Laurent J.Y., Cerri C.C., Feller C. (2006) Effect of sugarcane residue management (mulching versus burning) on organic matter in a clayey Oxisol from southern Brazil, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 115, 285–289.
Richards J. (1990) Land transformations, in: Turner B.L. II et al. (Eds.), The Earth as Transformed by Human Action, Cambridge Univ. Press.
Robertson F.A., Thorbun P.J. (2007) Management of sugarcane harvest residues: consequences for soil carbon and nitrogen, Aust. J. Soil Res. 45, 13–23.
Rukuni M. (2002) Africa: Addressing growing threats to food security, J. Nutr. 132, 3443S-3448S.PubMed
Rumpel C., Alexis M., Chabbi A., Chaplet V., Rasse D.P., Valentin C., Mariotti A. (2006) Black carbon contribution to soil organic matter composition in tropical sloping land under slash and burn agriculture, Geoderma 130, 35–46.
Sa J.C.M., Cerri C.C., Lal R., Dick W.A., Fidho S.P.V., Piccolo M.C., et al. (2001) Organic matter dynamics and carbon sequestration rates in a no-tillage chronosphere in a Brazilian Oxisol, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65, 1486–1499.
Sainju U.M., Lenssen A., Caesar-Tonthat T., Waddell J. (2006a) Tillage and crop rotation effects on dryland soil and residue carbon and nitrogen, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70, 668–678.
Sainju U.M., Lenssen A., Caesar-Thonthat T., Waddell J. (2006b) Carbon sequestration in dryland soils and plant residue as influenced by tillage and crop rotation, J. Environ. Qual. 35, 1341–1347.PubMed
Sainju U.M., Singh B.P., Whitehead W.F., Wang S. (2006c) Carbon supply and storage in tilled and nontilled soils as influenced by cover crops and nitrogen fertilization, J. Environ. Qual. 35, 1507–1517.PubMed
Salako F.K., Dada P.O., Adejuyigbe C.O., Adedire M.O., Martins O., Akwuebu C.A., Williams O.E. (2007) Soil strength and maize yield after topsoil removal and application of nutrient amendments on a gravelly Alfisol toposequence, Soil Till. Res. 94, 21–35.
Sanchez P.A. (2002) Soil fertility and hunger in Africa, Science 295, 2019–2020.PubMed
Sanchez P.A., Leakey R.R.B. (1997) Land use transformation in Africa: three determinants for balancing food security with natural resource utilization, Eur. J. Agron. 7, 15–23.
Sanchez P.A., Swaminathan M.S. (2005) Cutting world hunger in half, Science 307, 357–359.PubMed
Schlesing W.H. (1999) Carbon sequestration in soils, Science 284, 2095.
Schlesinger W.J. (2006) Carbon Trading, Science 315, 1217.
Schmidt M.W.I. (2004) Carbon budget in the black, Nature 427, 305–308.PubMed
Scholes R.J. (1990) The influence of soil fertility on the ecology of souther African dry savannas, J. Biogeogr. 17, 415–419.
Schuman G.E., Janzen H.H., Herrick J.E. (2002) Soil carbon dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands, Environ. Pollut. 116, 391–396.
Scopel E., Findeling A., Guerra E.C., Corbeels M. (2005) Impact of direct sowing mulch-based cropping systems on soil carbon, soil erosion and maize yield, Agron. Sustain. Dev. 25, 425–432.
Seifritz W. (1993) Should we store carbon in charcoal? Int. J. Hydrogen Energ. 18, 405–407.
Shi T. (2002) Ecological agriculture in China: bridging the gap between rhetoric and practice of sustainability, Ecol. Econ. 42, 359–368.
Shibu M.E., Leffelaar P.A., Van Keulen H., Affarwal P.K. (2006) Quantitative description of soil organic matter dynamics — A review of approaches with reference to rice-based cropping systems, Geoderma 137, 1–18.
Shittu O.S., Fasina A.S. (2006) Comparative effect of different residue management on maize yield at Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, J. Sustain. Agr. 28, 41–54.
Shiva V., Bedi G. (2002) Sustainable agriculture and food security: the impact of globalization, New Delhi Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications, 513 p.
Shneour E.A. (1966) Oxidation of graphite carbon in certain soils, Science 151, 991–992.PubMed
Short D. (1997) Traditional-style farming and values for sustainable development in Malta, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 88, 41–52.
Shriar A.J. (2007) In search of sustainable land use and food security in the arid hillside regions of Central America: putting the horse before the cart, Hum. Ecol. 35, 275–287.
Silva C.J., Costa C.C., Duda C., Timossi P.C., Leite I.C. (2006) Growth and yield of radish supplemented with different doses of earthworm humus and cattle manure, Revista Ceres 53, 23–28.
Singh B., Malhi S.S. (2006) Responses of soil physical properties to tillage and residue management on two soils in a cool temperate environment, Soil Till. Res. 85, 143–153.
Smaling E.M.A., Dixon J. (2006) Adding a soil fertility dimension to the global farming systems approach, with cases from Africa, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ. 116, 15–26.
Smaling E.M.A., Stoonvogel J.J., Windmeijer N.P. (1993) Calculating soil nutrient balances in Africa at different scales. II. District Scale, Fert. Rec. 35, 237–250.
Smil V. (1994) Energy in world history, West View Press, Boulder, CO.
Smil V. (2008) Energy in nature and society, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 480 p.
Soleri D., Cleveland D.A., Aragón C.F., Fuentes L.M.R., Ríos L.H., Sweeney S.H. (2005) Understanding the potential impact of transgenic crops in traditional agriculture: maize farmers’ perspectives in Cuba, Guatemala Mexico Environ. Biosafety Res. 4, 141–166.
Sombroek W., de Lourdes Ruivo M., Fearenside P.M., Glaser B., Lehmann J. (2003) Amazon dark earths as carbon stores and sinks, in: Lehmann J., Kern D.C., Glaser B., Woods W.I. (Eds.), Amazon Dark Earths: Origin, Properties and Management, Kluwer Academic Pub.
Somerville C. (2006) The billion ton biofuel vision, Science 312, 277.
Sparrow S.D., Lewis C.E., Knight C.W. (2006) Soil quality response to tillage and crop residue removal under subarctic conditions, Soil Till. Res. 91, 15–21.
Steiner C., Teixeira W.G., Lehmann J., Nehls T., de Macedo J.L.V., Blum W.E.H., Zech W. (2007) Long-term effects of manure, charcoal and mineral fertilization on crop production and fertility on a highly weathered central Amazonian upland soil, Plant Soil 291, 275–290.
Stevenson C.M., Jackson T.L., Meith A., Bork H.R., Ladeffaged T.N. (2006) Pre-historic and early historic agriculture at Maunga Orito, Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Chile, Antiquity 80, 919–936.
Stromgaard P. (1991) Soil nutrient accumulation under traditional African agriculture in the Miombo Woodland of Zambia, Trop. Agr. 68, 74–80.
Su Y.Z., Su Y.Z. (2007) Soil carbon and nitrogen sequestration following the conversion of cropland to alfalfa forage land in northwest China, Soil Till. Res. 92, 181–189.
Sutherland A.J., Irungu J.W., Kang’ara J., Muthamia J., Ouma J. (1999) Household food security in semi-arid Africa — the contribution of participatory adaptive research and development to rural livelihoods in Eastern Kenya, Food Policy 24, 363–390.
Swarup A., Manne M.C., Sigh G.B. (2000) Impact of land use and management practices on organic carbon dynamics in soils of India, in: Lal R., Kimble J.M., Stewart B.A. (Eds.), Global Climate Change and Tropical Ecosystems, Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 261–281.
Tan Z.X., Lal R., Wiebe K.D. (2005) Global Soil Nutrient Depletion and Yield Reduction, J. Sustain. Agr. 26, 123.
Terra J.A., Reeves D.W., Shaw J.N., Raper R.L. (2005) Impacts of landscape attributes on carbon sequestration during the transition from conventional to conservation management practices on a Coastal Plain field, J. Soil Water Conserv. 60, 438–446.
Thomsen I.K., Sorensen P. (2006) Interactions between soil organic matter level and soil tillage in a growing crop: N mineralization and yield response, Soil Use Manage. 22, 221–223.
Thrupp L.A. (2000) Linking agricultural biodiversity and food security: the valuable role of agrobiodiversity for sustainable agriculture, Int. Affairs 76, 265.
Tilman D., Hill J., Lehman C. (2006) Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-density grassland biomass, Science 314, 1598–1600.PubMed
U.S. Bureau of Census, Agric. Census. 1965, 1969, 1975, 1979, Washington, DC.
Ugwuanyi J.U., Obinne C. (1998) Promoting food security in sub-Saharan Africa, Outlook Agr. 27, 47–52.
USDA-FAS (2008) Agricultural Statistics, Foreign Agric. Service, Washington, DC.
Vagen T.G., Lal R., Singh B.R. (2005) Soil carbon sequestration in sub-Saharan Africa: a review, Land Degrad. Dev. 16, 53–71.
van der Westhuizen A. (2004) Plant defence mechanisms: relevance to agriculture in Africa, South Afr. J. Bot. 70, 124–127.
Van Oost K., Govers G., Quine T.A., Heckrath G. (2004) Comment on Managing soil carbon (I), Science 305, 1567.PubMed
Van Rooyen J., Sigwele H. (1998) Towards regional food security in southern Africa: a (new) policy framework for the agricultural sector, Food Policy 23, 491–504.
Veenstra J.J., Horwath W.R., Mitchell J.P. (2007) Tillage and cover cropping effects on aggregate-protected carbon in cotton and tomato, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71, 362–371.
Venterea R.T., Baker J.M., Dolan M.S., Spokas K.A. (2006) Carbon and nitrogen storage are greater under biennial tillage in a Minnesota corn-soybean rotation, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70, 1752–1762.
Verdin J., Funk C., Senay G., Choularton R. (2005) Climate science and famine early warning, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B 360, 2155–2168.
Vermeer D.E. (1983) Food sufficiency and farming in the future of west-Africa — Resurgence of traditional agriculture, J. Afr. Studies 10, 74–83.
Viil P., Vosa T. (2005) Soil loosening depth influence on soil properties and crop yield, 10th International Conference, New technological processes and investigation methods for agricultural engineering, pp. 25–31.
Vogel C. (2005) Seven fat years and seven lean years? Climate change and agriculture in Africa, IDS Bulletin-Institute of Development Studies 36, 30.
Walker N.J., Schulze R.E. (2006) An assessment of sustainable maize production under different management and climate scenarios for smallholder agro-ecosystems in KwaZulu-Natal, South Afr. Phys. Chem. Earth 31, 995–1002.
Wang P., Durkalski J.T., Yu W.T., Hoitink H.A.J., Dick W.A. (2006) Agronomic and soil responses to compost and manure amendments under different tillage systems, Soil Sci. 171, 456–467.
Wardle D.A., Nilsson M.-A., Zackrisson O. (2008) Fire-derived charcoal causes loss of forest humus, Science 320, 629.PubMed
West T.O., Post W.M. (2002) Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1930–1946.
West T.O., Post W.M. (2006) Soil Organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage and crop rotation, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66, 1930–1946.
Wilhelm W.W., Johnson J.M.F, Hatfield J.L., Woorhees W.B., Linden D.R. (2004) Crop and soil productivity response to corn residue removal: a literature review, Agron. J. 96, 1–17.
Wilkins R.J. (2007) Eco-efficient approaches to land management: a case for increased integration of crop and animal production systems, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2007.2167.
Williams M. (2006) Deforesting the earth: from prehistory to global crisis, an abridgement, The Univ. of Chicago Press, 543 p.
Xu C. (2004) Comparative study of Chinese ecological agriculture and sustainable agriculture, Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol. 11, 54–62.
Xu X.S., Jeffrey S. (1995) Efficiency and technical progress in traditional and modern agriculture: Evidence from rice production in China, Am. J. Agr. Econ. 77, 1363.
Xu X.S., Jeffrey S.R. (1998) Efficiency and technical progress in traditional and modern agriculture: evidence from rice production in China, Agr. Econ. 18, 157–165.
Xu Y., Zhang F.R., Wang J.K., Wang R., Kong X.B. (2006) Influence of management practices on soil organic matter changes in the Northern China plain and Northeastern China, Soil Till. Res. 86, 230–236.
Zhang X.C. (2005) Spatial downscaling of global climate model output for site-specific assessment of crop production and soil erosion, Agr. Forest Meteorol. 135, 215–229.
Zibilske L.M., Bradford J.M. (2007) Oxygen effects on carbon, polyhenols, and nitrogen mineralization potential in soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71, 133–139.
Zon R., Sparhawk W.N. (1923) Forest resources of the world, McGraw Hill, New York.