Alexander, M. A., C. Deser and M. S. Timlin (1999): The reemergence of SST anomalies in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Climate,
Alexander, M. A., I. Blade, M. Newman, J. R. Lanzante, N.-C. Lau and J. D. Scott (2002): The Atmospheric Bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air-sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate,
Aota, M. and M. Ishikawa (1993): Data on the variation in ice concentration along the Okhotsk Sea coast of Hokkaido. Umi to Sora,
95–108 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Auad, G. (2003): Interdecadal dynamics of the North Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. (in press).
Barber, R. T. and F. P. Chavez (1983): Biological consequences of El Niño. Science,
Barber, R. and F. P. Chavez (1986): Ocean variability in relation to living resources during the 1982-83 El Nino. Nature,
Barber, R. T., M. P. Sanderson, S. T. Lindley, F. Chai, J. Newton, C. C. Trees, D. G. Foley and F. P. Chavez (1996): Primary productivity and its regulation in the equatorial Pacific during and following the 1991-92 El Niño. Deep-Sea Res.,
Barlow M., S. Nigam and E. H. Berbery (2001): ENSO, Pacific decadal variability, and US summertime precipitation, drought, and stream flow. J. Climate,
Barsugli, J. J. and D. S. Battisti (1998): The basic effects of atmosphere-ocean thermal coupling on midlatitude variability. J. Atmos. Sci.,
Baumgartner, T. R., A. Soutar and V. Ferreira-Bartrina (1992): Reconstruction of the history of Pacific Sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments in the Santa Barbara basin. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.
, 24–40.Google Scholar
Beamish, R. J. and D. R. Bouillon (1993): Pacific salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.,
Benson, A. J. and A. W. Trites (2002): Ecological effects of regime shifts in the Bering Sea and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Fish and Fisheries,
Bingham, F. M. and R. Lukas (1996): Seasonal cycles of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen observed in the Hawaii Ocean Time-series. Deep-Sea Res.,
Biondi, F., C. B. Lange, M. K. Hughes and W. H. Berger (1997): Inter-decadal signals during the last millennium (AD 1117-1992) in the varve record of Santa Barbara basin, California. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
Bograd, S. J. and R. J. Lynn (2001): Physical-biological coupling in the California Current during the 1997-99 El Nino-La Nina cycle. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
Bograd, S. J., T. K. Chereskin and D. Roemmich (2001): Transport of mass, heat, salt, and nutrients in the southern California Current System: Annual cycle and interannual variability. J. Geophys. Res.,
Brink, K. H. and T. J. Cowles (1991): The Coastal Transition Zone Program. J. Geophys. Res.,
Brodeur, R. D. and D. M. Ware (1992): Long-term variability 182 in zooplankton biomass in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr.,
Brodeur, R. D., B. W. Frost, S. R. Hare, R. C. Francis and W. J. Ingraham (1996): Interannual variations in zooplankton biomass in the Gulf of Alaska and covariation with California Current zooplankton biomass. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.,
Brodeur, R. D., C. E. Mills, J. E., Overland, G. E., Walters and J. D. Schumacher (1999): Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change. Fish. Oceanogr.,
Capella, J. E., L. B. Quetin, R. M. Ross and E. E. Hofmann (1992): Circulation and temperature effects on the development and distribution of the embryos and larvae of the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba
III. Lagrangian model. Deep-Sea Res.,
Cayan, D. R. (1992): Latent and sensible heat-flux anomalies over the northern oceans-Driving the sea-surface temperature. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,
Cayan, D. R. and R. H. Webb (1992): El Niño/Southern Oscillation and streamflow in the western United States. p. 29–68. In El Niño, Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation, ed. by H. F. Diaz and V. Markgraf, Cambridge University Press.
Chai, F., S. T. Lindley and R. T. Barber (1996): Origin and maintenance of a high NO3 condition in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res.,
Chai, F., R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson and R. T. Barber (2002): One dimensional ecosystem model of the equatorial Pacific upwelling system, Part I: Model development and silicon and nitrogen cycle. Deep-Sea Res.,
Chai, F., M. Jiang, R. T. Barber, R. C. Dugdale and Y. Chao (2003a): Interdecadal variation of the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front, a physical-biological model simulation between 1960 and 1990. J. Oceanogr.,
Chai, F., M. Jiang, R. C. Dugdale, T.-H. Peng, F. P. Wilkerson, Y. Chao and R. T. Barber (2003b): Ecosystem and carbon cycle modeling in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean, model simulated variability between 1950 and 1993. Geophys. Res. Lett. (submitted).
Chao, Y., M. Ghil and J. C. McWilliams (2000): Pacific interdecadal variability in this century's sea surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
Charlson, R. J., J. E. Lovelock, M. O. Andreae and S. G. Warren (1987): Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature,
Chavez, F. P. (1996): Forcing and biological impacts of onset of the 1992 El Nino in central California. Geophys. Res. Lett.,
Chavez, F. P., P. G. Strutton, G. E. Friederich, R. A. Feely, G. Feldman, D. Foley and M. J. McPhaden (1999): Biological and chemical response of the equatorial Pacific Ocean to the 1997-1998 El Niño. Science,
Chavez, F. P., J. Ryan, E. Lluch-Cota and M. Niquen (2003): From anchovies to sardines and back: Multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science,
Chiba, S., T. Ono, K. Tadokoro, T. Midorikawa and T. Saino (2004): Increased stratification and decreased lower trophic level productivity in the Oyashio region of the North Pacific: A 30-year retrospective study. J. Oceanogr.,
this issue, 149–162.Google Scholar
Clarke, A. J. and A. Lebedev (1999): Remotely driven decadal and longer changes in the coastal Pacific waters of the Americas. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,
Coale, K. H. and 18 co-authors (1996): A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature
, 495–501.Google Scholar
Cobb, K. M., C. D. Charles and D. E. Hunter (2001): A central tropical Pacific coral demonstrates Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic decadal climate connections. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 2209–2212.Google Scholar
Coyle, K. O. and A. I. Pinchuk (2002): Climate-related differences in zooplankton density and growth on the inner shelf of the southeastern Bering Sea. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 177–194.Google Scholar
Cummins, P. F. and G. S. E. Lagerloef (2002): Low-frequency pycnocline depth variability at Ocean Weather Station P in the northeast Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 3207–3215.Google Scholar
Cury, P., L. Shannon and Y.-J. Shin (2003): The functioning of marine ecosystems. p. 103–123. In Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystems, ed. by M. Sinclair and G. Valdimarsson, Oxford University Press.
Deser, C. and M. Blackmon (1995): On the relationship between tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperature variations. J. Climate
, 1677–1680.Google Scholar
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander and M. S. Timlin (1996): Upper ocean thermal variations in the North Pacific during 1970-1991. J. Climate
, 1840–1855.Google Scholar
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander and M. S. Timlin (1999): Evidence for a wind-driven intensification of the Kuroshio Current extension from the 1970s to the 1980s. J. Climate
, 1697–1706.Google Scholar
Deser, C., M. A. Alexander and M. S. Timlin (2003a): Understanding the persistence of sea surface temperature anomalies in midlatitudes. J. Climate
, 57–72.Google Scholar
Deser, C., A. S. Phillips and J. W. Hurrell (2003b): Pacific interdecadal climate variability: Linkages between the tropics and North Pacific during boreal winter since 1900. J. Climate (submitted).
Di Lorenzo, E., A. J. Miller, N. Schneider and J. C. McWilliams (2003): The warming of the California Current System: Dynamics, thermodynamics and ecosystem implications. J. Phys. Oceanogr. (submitted).
Donaghay, P. L., P. S. Liss, R. A. Duce, D. R. Kester, A. K. Hanson, T. Villareal, N. W. Tindale and D. J. Gifford (1991): The role of episodic atmospheric nutrient inputs in the chemical and biological dynamics of oceanic ecosystems.Oceanography
, 62–70.Google Scholar
Duce, R. A. and N. W. Tindale (1991): Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnol. Oceanogr.
, 1715–1726.Google Scholar
Dugdale, R. C. and F. P. Wilkerson (1998): Silicate regulation of new production in the equatorial Pacific upwelling. Nature
, 270–273.Google Scholar
Dugdale, R. C., F. P. Wilkerson and others (1995): The role of Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean 183 a silicate pump in driving new production. Deep-Sea Res.
, 697–719.Google Scholar
Eddy, J. A. (1977) Climate and the changing sun. Clim. Change
, 173–190.Google Scholar
Emerson S., S. Mecking and J. Abell (2001): The biological pump in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean: Nutrient sources, Redfield ratios, and recent changes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles
, 535–554.Google Scholar
Emery, K. O. (1960): The Sea Off Southern California
. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 366 pp.Google Scholar
Enfield, D. B. and A. M. Mestas-Nunez (1999): Multiscale variabilities in global sea surface temperatures and their relationships with tropospheric climate patterns. J. Climate
, 2719–2733.Google Scholar
Erickson, D. J., S. Ghan and J. Penner (1990): Global ocean to atmosphere dimethyl sulfide flux. J. Geophys. Res.
, 7543–7552.Google Scholar
Fedorov, A. V. and S. G. H. Philander (2000): Is El Nino Changing? Science
, 1997–2002.Google Scholar
Feely, R. A., J. Boutin, C. E. Cosca, Y. Dandonneau, J. Etcheto, H. Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, C. Le Quere, D. Mackey, M. McPhaden, N. Metzl, A. Poisson and R. Wanninkhof (2002): Seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Res.
, 2443–2469.Google Scholar
Fiedler, P. C. (2002): Environmental change in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean: Review of ENSO and decadal variability. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
, 265–283.Google Scholar
Fiedler, P. C., F. P. Chavez, D. W. Behringer and S. B. Reilly (1992): Physical and biological effects of Los Ninos in the eastern tropical Pacific, 1986-1989. Deep-Sea Res.
, 199–219.Google Scholar
Francis, R. C. and T. H. Sibley (1991): Climate change and fisheries: What are the real issues? Northwest Environ. J.
, 295–307.Google Scholar
Francis, R. C., S. R. Hare, A. B. Hollowed and W. S. Wooster (1998): Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the NE Pacific. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 1–21.Google Scholar
Frankignoul, C., P. Müller and E. Zorita (1997): A simple model of the decadal response of the ocean to stochastic wind forcing. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 1533–1546.Google Scholar
Franks, P. J. S. and L. J. Walstad (1997): Phytoplankton patches at fronts: A model of formation and response to wind events. J. Mar. Res.
, 1–29.Google Scholar
Freeland, H., K. Denman, C. S. Wong, F. Whitney and R. Jacques (1997): Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.
, 2117–2129.Google Scholar
Freeland, H. J., G. Gatien, A. Huyer and R. L. Smith (2003): Cold halocline in the northern California Current: An invasion of subarctic water. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, art. no. 1141.
Friis-Christensen, E. (2001): Solar-terrestrial connection: Longterm and short-term climate variability. In Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics
, Dirack House, Bristol, U.K.Google Scholar
Frost, B. W. (1987): Grazing control of phytoplankton stock in the open subarctic Pacific Ocean: a model assessing the role of mesozooplankton, particularly the large calanoid copepods, Neocalanus
spp. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.
, 49–68.Google Scholar
Frouin, R. and S. Iacobellis (2002): Influence of phytoplankton on the global radiation budget. J. Geophys. Res.
, 5.1–5.10.Google Scholar
Fu, L. L. and B. Qiu (2002): Low-frequency variability of the North Pacific Ocean: The roles of boundary-and winddriven baroclinic Rossby waves. J. Geophys. Res., 107, art. no. 3220.
Gabric, A. J., P. H. Whetton, R. Boers and G. P. T. Ayers (1998): The impact of simulated climate change on the air-sea flux of dimethylsulphide in the subantarctic Southern Ocean. Tellus
, 388–399.Google Scholar
Giese, B. S. and J. A. Carton (1999): Interannual and decadal variability in the tropical and midlatitude Pacific Ocean. J. Climate
, 3402–3418.Google Scholar
Gildor, H., A. H. Sobel, M. A. Cane and R. N. Sambrotto (2003): A role for ocean biota in tropical intraseasonal atmospheric variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, art. no. 1460.
Gordon, R. M., K. H. Coale and K. S. Johnson (1997): Iron distribution in the equatorial Pacific: implications for new production. Limnol. Oceanogr.
, 419–431.Google Scholar
Graham, N. E., T. P. Barnett, R. Wilde, M. Ponater and S. Schubert (1994): Low-frequency variability in the winter circulation over the Northern Hemisphere. J. Climate
, 1416–1442.Google Scholar
Gregg, W. W. and M. E. Conkright (2002): Decadal changes in global ocean chlorophyll. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/ 2002GLO14689.
Gruber, N. and J. L. Sarmiento (1997): Global patterns of marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 11, 235–26Google Scholar
Gu, D. F. and S. G. H. Philander} (1994): Interdecadal climate fluctuations that depend on exchanges between the tropics and extratropics. Science
, 275, 805–807.Google Scholar
Haigh, S. P., K. L. Denman and W. W. Hsieh (2001): Simulation of the planktonic ecosystem response to pre-and post-1976 forcing in an isopycnic model of the North Pacific. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
, 58, 703–722.Google Scholar
Hanawa, K. (1991): Long-term variations of the atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific and the Oyashio. Bull. Hokkaido Nat. Fish. Res. Inst.
, 55, 125–139.Google Scholar
Hanawa, K. and J. Kamada (2001): Variability of core layer temperature (CLT) of the North Pacific subtropical mode water. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 28, 2229–2232.Google Scholar
Hanawa, K., T. Watanabe, N. Iwasaka, T. Suga and Y. Toba (1988): Surface thermal conditions in the western North Pacific during the ENSO events. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan
, 66, 445–456.Google Scholar
Hare, S. R. and R. C. Francis (1995): Climate change and salmon production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. p. 357–372. In Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, ed. by R. J. Beamish, Canadian Special Publication, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 121.
Hare, S. R. and N. Mantua (2000): Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 47, 103–145.Google Scholar
Hare, S. R., N. J. Mantua and R. C. Francis (1999): Inverse production regimes: Alaska and West Coast Pacific salmon. Fisheries
, 24, 6–14.Google Scholar
Harrison, P. J. (2002): Station Papa time series: insights into ecosystem dynamics. J. Oceanogr.
, 58, 259–264.Google Scholar
Hasselmann, K. (1976): Stochastic climate models. Part I. Theory. Tellus, 28, 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haug, G. H., D. M. Sigman, R. Tiedemann, T. F. Pedersen and M. Sarnthein (1999): Onset of permanent stratification in the ubarctic Pacific Ocean. Nature
, 401, 779–782.Google Scholar
Hayward, T. L. (1987): The nutrient distribution and primary production in the Central North Pacific. Deep-Sea Res.
, 34, 1593–1627.Google Scholar
Hayward, T. L. (1997): Pacific Ocean climate change: Atmospheric forcing, ocean circulation and ecosystem response. Trends Ecol. Evol.
, 12, 150–154.Google Scholar
Hofmann, E. E., E. N. Powell, J. M. Klink and G. Saunders (1995): Modelling diseased oyster populations I. Modeling Perkinsus marinus infection in oysters. J. Shellfish Res.
, 14, 121–151.Google Scholar
Hollowed, A. B. and W. S. Wooster (1992): Variability of winter ocean conditions and strong year classes of Northeast Pacific groundfish. ICES Marine Sci. Symp.
, 195, 433–444.Google Scholar
Hollowed, A. B. and W. S. Wooster} (1995): Decadal-scale variations in the eastern subarctic Pacific: II. Response of Northeast Pacific fish stocks. p. 373–385. In Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, ed. by R. J. Beamish, Canadian Special Publication, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 121.
Hunt G. L., P. Stabeno, G. Walters, E. Sinclair, R. D. Brodeur, J. M. Napp and N. A. Bond (2002): Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep-Sea Res.
, 49, 5821–5853.Google Scholar
Hurrell, J. W. (1995): Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation-Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science
, 269, 2286–2301.Google Scholar
Iida T., S. I. Saitoh, T. Miyamura, M. Toratani, H. Fukushima and N. Shiga (2002): Temporal and spatial variability of coccolithophore blooms in the eastern Bering Sea, 1998-2001. Prog. Oceanogr., 55, 165–175.Google Scholar
Ishida Y., T. Azumaya, M. Fukuwaka and N. Davis (2002): Interannual variability in stock abundance and body size of Pacific salmon in the central Bering Sea. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 55, 223–234.Google Scholar
Iwao, T. and H. Taguchi (1999): Long-term sea ice monitoring in the Sea of Okhotsk and polar regions. Sokko Jiho
, 66, 141–150 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
Jiang, M.-S., F. Chai, R. T. Barber, R. C. Dugdale, F. Wilkerson and T.-H. Peng (2003): A nitrate and silicate budget in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean: A coupled biological-physical model study. Deep-Sea Res.
, 50, 2971–2996.Google Scholar
Jin, F.-F. (1997): A theory of interdecadal climate variability of the North Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. J. Climate, 10, 1821–1835.Google Scholar
Karl, D. M. (1999): A sea of change: Biogeochemical variability in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Ecosystems
, 2, 181–214.Google Scholar
Karl, D. M. and R. Lukas (1996): The Hawaii Ocean Timeseries (HOT) program: Background, rationale and field implementation.Deep-Sea Res.
, 43, 129–156.Google Scholar
Karl, D. M., R. R. Bidigare and R. M. Letelier (2001): Longterm changes in plankton community structure and productivity in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: The domain shift hypothesis. Deep-Sea Res.
, 48, 1449–1470.Google Scholar
Kawamiya, M., M. J. Kishi and N. Suginohara (2000): An ecosystem model for the North Pacific embedded in a general circulation model, Part II: Mechanisms forming seasonal variations of chlorophyll. J. Mar. Systems
, 25, 159–178.Google Scholar
Kleeman, R., J. P. McCreary and B. A. Klinger (1999): A mechanism for generating ENSO decadal variability. Geophys.Res. Lett.
, 26, 1743–1746.Google Scholar
Kobari, T., A. Shinada and A. Tsuda (2003): Functional roles of interzonal migrating mesozooplankton in the western subarctic Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 57, 279–298.Google Scholar
Kubo, N. (1994): The zooplankton standing crops in the sea south of Hokkaido. J. Meteorol. Res.
, 45, 201–212.Google Scholar
Lagerloef, G. S. E. (1995): Interdecadal variations in the Alaska Gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 25, 2242–2258.Google Scholar
Landry, M. R. and 12 co-authors (1997): Iron and grazing constraints on primary production in the central equatorial Pacific: An EqPac synthesis. Limnol. Oceanogr., 42, 405–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Landscheidt, T. (1999): Extrema in sunspot cycle linked to Sun's motion. Solar Phys.
, 189, 413–424.Google Scholar
Landscheidt, T. (2001): Trends in Pacific Decadal Oscillation subjected to solar forcing, http://www.vision.net.au/~daly/ theodor/pdotrend.htm
Lange, C. B., S. K. Burke and W. H. Berger (1990): Biological production off southern California is linked to climate change. Clim. Change, 16, 319–32Google Scholar
Latif, M. and T. P. Barnett (1994): Causes of decadal climate variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science
, 266, 634–637.Google Scholar
Latif, M., R. Kleeman and C. Eckert (1997): Greenhouse warming, decadal variability, or El Nino? An attempt to understand the anomalous 1990s. J. Climate
, 10, 2221–2239.Google Scholar
Le Borgne, R., R. A. Feely and D. J. Mackey (2002): Carbon fluxes in the equatorial Pacific: a synthesis of the JGOFS program. Deep-Sea Res.
, 49, 2425–2442.Google Scholar
Lehodey, P., M. Bertignac, J. Hampton, A. Lewis and J. Picaut (1997): El Niño Southern Oscillation and tuna in the western Pacific. Nature
, 389, 715–718.Google Scholar
Lehodey, P., F. Chai and J. Hampton (2003): Modelling climate-related variability of tuna populations from a coupled ocean-biogeochemical-populations dynamics model. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 12, 483–494.Google Scholar
Limsakul, A., T. Saino, T. Midorikawa and J. I. Goes (2001): Temporal variations in lower trophic level biological environments in the northwestern North Pacific Subtropical Gyre from 1950 to 1997. Prog. Oceanogr., 49, 129–149.Google Scholar
Limsakul, A., T. Saino, J. I. Goes and T. Midorikawa (2002): Seasonal variability in the lower trophic level environments of the western subtropical Pacific and Oyashio waters-A retrospective study. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 5487–5512.Google Scholar
Liu, Z. (1999): Forced planetary wave response in a thermocline gyre. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 29, 1036–1055.Google Scholar
Liu, Z. Y. and H. J. Yang (2003): Extratropical control of tropical climate, the atmospheric bridge and oceanic tunnel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, art. no. 1230.
Liu, Z., L. Wu, R. Gallimore and R. Jacob (2003): Search for the origins of Pacific decadal climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, art. no. 1404.
Lluch-Belda, D., R. A. Schwartzlose, R. Serra, R. Parish, T. Kawasaki, D. Hedgecock and J. M. Crawford (1992): Sardine and anchovy regime fluctuations of abundance in four regions of the world ocean: a workshop report. Fish Oceanogr.
, 339-347.Google Scholar
Lluch-Cota, D. B., W. S. Wooster, S. R., D. Lluch-Belda and A. Pares-Sierra (2003): Principal modes and related frequencies of sea surface temperature variability in the Pacific Coast of North America. J. Oceanogr.
}, 59}, 477–Google Scholar
Loeb, V., V. Siegel, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Hewitt, W. Fraser, W. Trivelpiece and S. Trivelpiece (1997): Effects of sea-ice extent and krill or salp dominance on the Antarctic food web. Nature
, 387, 897–900.Google Scholar
Luo, J. J. and T. Yamagata (2002): Four decadal ocean-atmosphere modes in the North Pacific revealed by various analysis methods. J. Oceanogr.
, 58, 861–876.Google Scholar
Lysne, J., P. Chang and B. Giese (1997): Impact of the extratropical Pacific on equatorial variability. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 24, 2589–2592.Google Scholar
Mackas, D. L., R. E. Thomson and M. Galbraith (2001): Changes in the zooplankton community of the British Columbia continental margin, 1985-1999, and their covariation with oceanographic conditions. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
, 58, 685–702.Google Scholar
Mackey, D. J., J. E. O'Sullivan and R. J. Watson (2002): Iron in the Western Pacific, a riverine or hydrothermal source for iron in the Equatorial UnderCurrent? Deep-Sea Res.
, 49, 877–893.Google Scholar
Macklin, S. A. (2001): Physical and biophysical time-series originating from or used by Fisheries Oceanography Coordinated Investigations (FOCI) in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. PICES Sci. Rep.
, 18, 64–74.Google Scholar
Macklin S. A., V. I. Radchenko, S. Saitoh and P. J. Stabeno (2002): Variability in the Bering Sea ecosystem. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 55, 1–4.Google Scholar
Mantua, N. J. and S. R. Hare (2002): The Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Oceanogr.
, 58, 35–44.Google Scholar
Mantua, N. J., S. R. Hare, Y. Zhang, J. M. Wallace and R. C. Francis (1997): A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.
, 78, 1069–1079.Google Scholar
Martin, J. H. and S. E. Fitzwater (1988): Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in the northeast Pacific subarctic. Nature
, 331, 341–343.Google Scholar
Martin, J. H. and 41 co-authors (1994): Testing the iron hypothesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature
, 371, 123–129.Google Scholar
McClain, C. R., K. Arrigo, K.-S. Tai and D. Turk (1996): Observations and simulations of physical and biological processes at ocean weather station P, 1951-1980. J. Geophys. Res.
, 101, 3697–3713.Google Scholar
McGillicuddy, D. J., A. R. Robinson, D. A. Siegel, H. W. Jannasch, R. Johnson, T. D. Dickey, J. McNeil, A. F. Michaels and A. H. Knap (1998): Influence of mesoscale eddies on new production in the Sargasso Sea. Nature
, 394, 263–266.Google Scholar
McGowan, J. A., D. R. Cayan and L. M. Dorman (1998): Climate-ocean variability and ecosystem response in the northeast Pacific. Science
, 281, 210–217.Google Scholar
McGowan, J. A., S. J. Bograd, R. J. Lynn and A. J. Miller (2003): The biological response to the 1977 regime shift in the California Current. Deep-Sea Res.}, 50}, 2567–2Google Scholar
McPhaden, M. J. and D. Zhang (2002): Slowdown of the meridional overturning circulation in the upper Pacific Ocean. Nature
, 415, 603–608.Google Scholar
McPhaden, M. J. and others (1998): The tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere observing system: A decade of progress. J. Geophys. Res.
, 103, 14169–14240.Google Scholar
Meyers, S. D., M. A. Johnson, M. Liu, J. J. O'Brien and J. L. Spiesberger (1996): Interdecadal variability in a numerical model of the northeast Pacific Ocean: 1970-89. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 26, 2635–2652.Google Scholar
Michaels, A., D. Karl and D. Capone (2001): Element stoichiometry, new production and nitrogen fixation. Oceanography
, 14, 68–77.Google Scholar
Miller, A. J. and N. Schneider (2000): Interdecadal climate regime dynamics in the North Pacific Ocean: Theories, observations and ecosystem impacts. Prog. Oceanogr., 47, 355–37Google Scholar
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham and J. M. Oberhuber (1994a): Interdecadal variability of the Pacific Ocean: model response to observed heat flux and wind stress anomalies. Clim. Dyn., 9, 287–302.Google Scholar
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan, T. P. Barnett, N. E. Graham and J. M. Oberhuber (1994b): The 1976-1977 climate shift of the Pacific Ocean. Oceanography
, 7, 21–26.Google Scholar
Miller, A. J., D. R. Cayan and W. B. White (1998): A westward intensified decadal change in the North Pacific thermocline and gyre-scale circulation. J. Climate
, 11, 3112–3127.Google Scholar
Miller, A. J., J. C. McWilliams, N. Schneider, J. S. Allen, J. A. Barth, R. C. Beardsley, F. P. Chavez, T. K. Chereskin, C. A. Edwards, R. L. Haney, K. A. Kelly, J. C. Kindle, L. N. Ly, J. R. Moisan, M. A. Noble, P. P. Niiler, L. Y. Oey, F. B. Schwing, R. K. Shearman and M. S. Swenson (1999): Observing and modeling the California Current System. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 80, 533–539.Google Scholar
Miller, A. J., M. A. Alexander, G. J. Boer, F. Chai, K. Denman, D. J. Erickson, R. Frouin, A. J. Gabric, E. A. Laws, M. R. Lewis, Z. Liu, R. Murtugudde, S. Nakamoto, D. J. Neilson, J. R. Norris, J. C. Ohlmann, R. I. Perry, N. Schneider, K. M. Shell and A. Timmermann (2003): Potential feedbacks between Pacific Ocean ecosystems and interdecadal climate variations. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.
, 84, 617–633.Google Scholar
Miller, C. B., B. W. Frost, B. Booth, P. A. Wheeler, M. R. Landry and N. Welschmeyer (1991): Ecological processes in the subarctic Pacific: Iron limitation cannot be the whole story. Oceanography
, 4, 71–78.Google Scholar
Minobe, S. (2000): Spatio-temporal structure of the pentadecadal variability over the North Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 47, 381–408.Google Scholar
Mochizuki, T. and H. Kida (2003): Maintenance of decadal SST anomalies in the midlatitude North Pacific. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan
, 81, 477–491.Google Scholar
Moisan, J. R. and P. P. Niiler (1998): The seasonal heat budget of the North Pacific: Net heat flux and heat storage rates (1950-1990). J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 28, 401–421.Google Scholar
Moisan, J. R., T. A. Moisan and M. R. Abbott (2002): Modeling the effect of temperature on the maximum growth rates of phytoplankton populations. Ecol. Modeling
, 153, 197–215.Google Scholar
Murray, J. W., R. T. Barber, M. R. Roman, M. P. Bacon and R. A. Feely (1994): Physical and biological controls on carbon cycling in the equatorial Pacific. Science
, 266, 58–65.Google Scholar
Murtugudde, R., J. Beauchamp, C. R. McClain, M. Lewis and A. Busalacchi (2002): Effects of penetrative radiation on the upper tropical ocean circulation. J. Climate
, 15, 470–486.Google Scholar
Mysak, L. A. (1986): El Nino, interannual variability and fisheries in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Can. J. Fish Aquatic Sci.
, 43, 464–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nakamoto, S., S. Prasanna Kumar, J. M. Oberhuber, J. Ishizaka, K. Muneyama and R. Frouin (2001): Response of the equatorial Pacific to chlorophyll pigments in a mixed layer isopycnal ocean general circulation model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 2021–2024.Google Scholar
Nakamura, H., G. Lin and T. Yamagata (1997): Decadal climate variability in the North Pacific during recent decades. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.
, 78, 2215–2225.Google Scholar
Nakamura, T. and T. Hinata (1999): Seasonal and interannual variability of the Kuroshio south of Japan. Sokko Jiho, 66, 33–41 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
Nakata, N., S. Koyama and Y. Matsukawa (2001): Interannual variation in spring biomass and gut content composition of copepods in the Kuroshio current, 1971-89. Fish. Oceanogr., 10, 329–34Google Scholar
Neelin, J. D. and W. J. Weng (1999). Analytical prototypes for ocean-atmosphere interaction at midlatitudes. Part I: Coupled feedbacks as a sea surface temperature dependent stochastic process. J. Climate
, 12, 697–721.Google Scholar
Newman, M., G. P. Compo and M. A. Alexander (2003): ENSO forced variability of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. J. Climate (in press).
Norris, J. R. and C. B. Leovy (1994): Interannual variability in stratiform cloudiness and sea-surface temperature. J. Climate
, 7, 1915–1925.Google Scholar
Noto, M. and I. Yasuda (1999): Population decline of the Japanese sardine, Sardinops melanostictus, in relation to sea surface temperature in the Kuroshio Extension. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
, 56, 973–983.Google Scholar
Noto, M. and I. Yasuda (2003): Empirical biomass model for the Japanese sardine with sea surface temperature in the Kuroshio Extension. Fish. Oceanogr. (in press).
Odate, K. (1994): Zooplankton biomass and its long-term variation in the western North Pacific Ocean. Bull. Tohoku Region. Fish. Res. Lab.
, 56, 115–173.Google Scholar
Ohtani, K. (1989): The role of the Sea of Okhotsk on the formation of the Oyashio Water. Umi to Sora
, 65, 1–21 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Ono, T., T. Midorikawa, Y. W. Watanabe, K. Tadokoro and T. Saino (2001): Temporal increases of phosphate and apparent oxygen utilization in the subsurface waters of western subarctic Pacific from 1968 to 1998. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 28, 3285–3288.Google Scholar
Ono, T., K. Tadokoro, T. Midorikawa, J. Nishioka and T. Saino (2002): Multi-decadal decrease of net community production in western subarctic North Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GLO14332.
Overland et al. (1999): Decadal variability of the Aleutian Low and its relation to high-latitude circulation. J. Climate
, 12, 1542–1548.Google Scholar
Parrish, R. H., F. B. Schwing and R. Mendelssohn (2000): Midlatitude wind stress: The energy source for climatic shifts in the North Pacific Ocean. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 9, 224–238.Google Scholar
Peng, S. L., W. A. Robinson and M. P. Hoerling (1997): The modeled atmospheric response to midlatitude SST anomalies and its dependence on background circulation states. J. Climate
, 10, 971–987.Google Scholar
Philander, S. G. H. (1999): A review of tropical ocean-atmosphere interactions. Tellus
, 51, 51–79.Google Scholar
Pierce, D. W. (2001): Distinguishing coupled ocean-atmosphere interactions from background noise in the North Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 49, 331–352.Google Scholar
Pipko, I. I., I. P. Semiletov, P. Y. Tishchenko, S. P. Pugach and J. P. Christensen (2002): Carbonate chemistry dynamics in Bering Strait and the Chukchi Sea. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 55, 77–94.Google Scholar
Polovina, J. J., G. T. Mitchell and G. T. Evans (1995): Decadal and basin-scale variation in mixed layer depth and the impact on biological production in the central and North Pacific, 1960-88. Deep-Sea Res.
, 42, 1701–1716.Google Scholar
Qiu, B. (2002): The Kuroshio Extension system: Its large-scale variability and role in the midlatitude ocean-atmosphere interaction. J. Oceanogr.
, 58, 57–75.Google Scholar
Qiu, B. (2003): Kuroshio Extension variability and forcing of the Pacific decadal oscillations: Responses and potential feedback. J. Phys. Oceanogr. (in press).
Qiu, B. and T. M. Joyce (1992): Interannual variability in the mid-and low-latitude western North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 22, 1062–1079.Google Scholar
Qiu, B. and W. Miao (2000): Kuroshio path variations south of Japan: Bimodality as a self-sustained internal oscillation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 30, 2124–2137.Google Scholar
Roemmich, D. (1992): Ocean warming and sea level rise along the southwest U.S. coast. Nature
, 257, 373–375.Google Scholar
Roemmich, D. and J. McGowan (1995): Climate warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California Current. Science
, 267, 1324–1326.Google Scholar
Royer, T. C., C. E. Grosch and L. A. Mysak (2001): Interdecadal variability of Northeast Pacific coastal freshwater and its implications on biological productivity. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 49, 95–111.Google Scholar
Saito, H., A. Tsuda and H. Kasai (2002): Nutrient and plankton dynamics in the Oyashio region of the western subarctic Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res.
, 49, 5463–5486.Google Scholar
Saravanan, R. and J. C. McWilliams (1998): Advective oceanatmosphere interaction: An analytical stochastic model with implications for decadal variability. J. Climate
, 11, 165–188.Google Scholar
Sathyendranath, S., A. D. Gouveia, S. R. Shetye, P. Ravindran and T. Platt (1991): Biological control of surface temperature in the Arabian Sea. Nature, 349, 54–5Google Scholar
Sato, K. (1992): Long-term fluctuations of sea ice area in the Northern hemisphere. Umi to Sora
, 68, 181–190 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Schneider, N. (2000): A decadal spiciness mode in the tropics. Geophys. Res. Lett.
, 27, 257–260.Google Scholar
Schneider, N. and A. J. Miller (2001): Predicting western North Pacific Ocean climate. J. Climate
, 14, 3997–4002.Google Scholar
Decadal-Scale Climate and Ecosystem Interactions in the North Pacific Ocean 187
Schneider, N., A. J. Miller, M. A. Alexander and C. Deser (1999): Subduction of decadal North Pacific temperature anomalies: Observations and dynamics. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 29, 1056–1070.Google Scholar
Schneider, N., A. J. Miller and D. W. Pierce (2002): Anatomy of North Pacific decadal variability. J. Climate
, 15, 586–605.Google Scholar
Schwing, F. B. and R. Mendelsohn (1997): Increased coastal upwelling in the California Current System. J. Geophys. Res.
, 102, 12785–12786.Google Scholar
Schwing, F. B. and C. Moore (2000): A year without summer for California, or a harbinger of a climate shift? EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 81, 301–30Google Scholar
Schwing, F. B., S. J. Bograd, C. A. Collins, G. Gaxiola-Castro, J. Garcia, R. Goericke, J. Gomez-Valdez, A. Huyer, K. D. Hyrenbach, P. M. Kosro, B. E. Lavaniegos, R. J. Lynn, A. W. Mantyla, M. D. Ohman, W. T. Peterson, R. L. Smith, W. J. Sydeman, E. Venrick and P. A. Weeler (2002a):The state of the California Current, 2001-2002: Will the California Current System keep its cool, or is El Nino looming? Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep.
, 43, 31–68.Google Scholar
Schwing, F. B., T. Murphree and P. M. Green (2002b): The Northern Oscillation Index (NOI): A new climate index for the northeast Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr., 53, 115–139.Google Scholar
Scott, J. D. and M. A. Alexander (1999): Net shortwave fluxes over the ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 29, 3167–3174.Google Scholar
Seager, R., Y. Kushnir, N. Naik, M. A. Cane and J. A. Miller (2001): Wind-driven shifts in the latitude of the Kuroshio-Oyashio Extension and generation of SST anomalies on decadal timescales. J. Climate
, 14, 4249–4265.Google Scholar
Sekine, Y. (1999): On variation in the subarctic circulation in the North Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 43, 193–203.Google Scholar
Shell, K. M., R. Frouin, S. Nakamoto and R. C. J. Somerville (2003): Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton. J. Geophys. Res.
, 108, 4445, doi:10.1029/ 2003JD003440.Google Scholar
Shin K. H., N. Tanaka, N. Harada and J. C. Marty (2002): Production and turnover rates of C-37 alkenones in the eastern Bering Sea: implication for the mechanism of a long duration of Emiliania huxleyi bloom. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 55, 113–129.Google Scholar
Siegel, D. A., T. K. Westberry and J. C. Ohlmann (1999): On cloud color and ocean radiant heating. J. Climate
, 12, 1101–1116.Google Scholar
Smith, S. L., B. H. Jones, L. P. Atkinson and K. H. Brink (1986): Zooplankton in the upwelling fronts off Point Conception, California. p. 195–213. In Marine Interfaces Ecohydrodynamics
, ed. by J. C. Nihoul, Elsevier Oceanogr. Ser., Vol. 42, Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
Solomon, A., J. P. McCreary, R. Kleeman and B. A. Klinger (2003): Interannual and decadal variability in an intermediate coupled model of the Pacific region. J. Climate
, 16, 383–405.Google Scholar
Spindler, M. and G. S. Dieckmann (1994): Ecological significance of the sea ice biota. p. 60–68. In Antarctic Science
, ed. by G. Hempel, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.Google Scholar
Stabeno, P. J. and J. E. Overland (2001): Bering Sea shifts toward earlier spring transition. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union.
, 82, 321.Google Scholar
Stabeno, P. J., N. A. Bond, N. B. Kachel, S. A. Salo and J. D. Schumacher (2001): On the temporal variability of the physical environment over the south-eastern Bering Sea. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 10, 81–98.Google Scholar
Stott, L. D., W. Berelson, R. Douglas and D. Gorsline (2000): Increased dissolved oxygen in Pacific intermediate waters due to lower rates of carbon oxidation in sediments. Nature
, 407, 367–370.Google Scholar
Strub, P. T. and C. James (2003): Altimeter estimates of anomalous transports into the northern California Current during 2000-2002. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, doi:10.1029/ 2003GL017513.
Strub, P. T., C. James, A. C. Thomas and M. R. Abbott (1990): Seasonal and nonseasonal variability of satellite-derived surface pigment in the California Current. J. Geophys. Res.
, 95, 11501–11530.Google Scholar
Strub, P. T., P. M. Kosro and A. Huyer (1991): The nature of the cold filaments in the California Current System. J. Geophys. Res.
, 96, 14,743–14,768.Google Scholar
Strutton, P. G. and F. P. Chavez (2000): Primary productivity in the equatorial Pacific during the 1997-1998 El Niño. J. Geophys. Res.
, 105, 26089–26101.Google Scholar
Strutton, P. G. and F. P. Chavez (2003): Biological heating in the equatorial Pacific: Observed variability and potential for real-time calculation. J. Climate (submitted).
Sugimoto, T. and K. Tadokoro (1997): Interannual-interdecadal variations in zooplankton biomass, chlorophyll concentration and physical environment in the subarctic Pacific and Bering Sea. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 6, 74–93.Google Scholar
Sugimoto, T. and K. Tadokoro (1998): Interdecadal variations of plankton biomass and physical environment in the North Pacific. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 7, 289–299.Google Scholar
Svensmark, H. and E. Friis-Christensen (1997): Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage-a missing link in solar-climate relationships. Sol.-Terr. Phys.
, 59, 1225–1232.Google Scholar
Swenson, M. S. and P. P. Niiler (1996): Statistical analysis of the surface circulation of the California Current. J. Geophys. Res.
, 101, 22631–22645.Google Scholar
Tadokoro, K. (2001): Long-term variation of plankton biomass in the North Pacific. PICES Sci. Rep.
, 18, 132–136.Google Scholar
Takahashi, T., S. C. Sutherland, C. Sweeney, A. Poisson, N. Metzl, B. Tilbrook, N. Bates, R. Wanninkhof, R. A. Feely, C. Sabine, J. Olafsson and Y. Nojiri (2002): Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Deep-Sea Res.
, 49, 1601–1622.Google Scholar
Taniguchi, A. (1999): Differences in the structure of the lower trophic levels of pelagic ecosystems in the eastern and western subarctic Pacific. Prog. Oceanogr.
, 43, 289–315.Google Scholar
Tanimoto, Y., N. Iwasaka, K. Hanawa and Y. Toba (1992): Characteristic variations of sea surface temperature with multiple time scales in the North Pacific. J. Climate
, 6, 1153–1160.Google Scholar
Thompson, D. W. J. and J. M. Wallace (2000): Annular modes in the extratropical circulation. Part I: Month-to-month variability. J. Climate, 13, 1000–1016.Google Scholar
Timmermann, A. and F. F. Jin (2002a): A nonlinear mechanism for decadal El Nino amplitude changes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 188 A. J. Miller et al. 29, art. no. 1003.
Timmermann, A. and F. F. Jin (2002b): Phytoplankton influences on tropical climate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, art. no. 2104.
Toggweiler, J. R. and S. Carson (1995): What are upwelling systems contributing to the ocean's carbon and nutrient budgets? p. 337–360. In Upwelling in the Ocean: Modern Processes and Ancient Records, ed. by C. P. Summerhayes, K.-C. Emeis, M. V. Angel, R. L. Smith and B. Zeitzschel, Wiley.
Tomita, T., S.-P. Xie and M. Nonaka (2003): Estimates of surface and subsurface forcing for decadal sea surface temperature variability in the mid-latitude North Pacific. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan
, 80, 1289–1300.Google Scholar
Tomosada, A. and K. Odate (1995): Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass and environment. Umi to Sora
, 71, 1–7 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
Trenberth, K. E. and J. W. Hurrell (1994): Decadal atmosphereocean variations in the Pacific. Clim. Dyn.
, 9, 303–319.Google Scholar
Trenberth, K. E. and J. W. Hurrell (1995): Decadal couples atmosphere-ocean variations in the North Pacific Ocean., p. 15–21. In Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, ed. by R. J. Beamish, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 121.
Vance, T. C., J. D. Schumacher, P. J. Stabeno, C. T. Baier, T. Wyllie-Eschevarria, C. T. Tynan, R. D. Brodeur, J. M. Napp, K. O. Coyle, M. B. Decker, G. L. Hunt, Jr., D. Stockwell, T. E. Whitledge, M. Jump and S. Zeeman (1998): Aquamarine waters recorded for first time in eastern Bering Sea. EOS, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union.
, 121, 126.Google Scholar
Venrick, E. L., J. A. McGowan, D. R. Cayan and T. L. Hayward (1987): Climate and chlorophyll a: Long-term trends in the central north Pacific Ocean. Science
, 238, 70–72.Google Scholar
Watanabe, Y., H. Zenitani and R. Kimura (1995): Population decline of the Japanese sardine Sardinops melanosticus, owing to recruitment failures. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.
, 52, 1609–1616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, W. B., J. Lean, D. R. Cayan and M. D. Dettinger (1997): Response of global ocean temperature to changing solar irradiance. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3255–326Google Scholar
White, W. B., Y. M. Tourre, M. Barlow and M. Dettinger, (2003): A delayed action oscillator shared by biennial, interannual, and decadal signals in the Pacific Basin. J. Geophys. Res., 108, art. no. 3070.
Wickett, W. P. (1967): Ekman transport and zooplankton concentration in the North Pacific Ocean. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.
, 24, 581–594.Google Scholar
Wooster, W. S. and D. L. Fluharty (eds.) (1986): El Nino North: Nino Effects in the Eastern subarctic Pacific Ocean
. Washington Sea Grant, Seattle, WA, 312 pp.Google Scholar
Wu, L., Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, R. Jacob, D. Lee and Y. Zhong (2003): Pacific decadal variability: The tropical Pacific mode and the North Pacific mode. J. Climate
, 16, 1101–1120.Google Scholar
Xie, S. P., T. Kunitani, A. Kubokawa, M. Nonaka and S. Hosoda (2000): Interdecadal thermocline variability in the North Pacific for 1958-1997: A GCM simulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 30, 2798–2813.Google Scholar
Yasuda, I. (2003): Hydrographic structure and variability in the Kuroshio-Oyashio Transition Area. J. Oceanogr.
, 59, 389–402.Google Scholar
Yasuda, I., H. Sugisaki, Y. Watanabe, S. Minobe and Y. Oozeki (1999): Interdecadal variations in Japanese sardine and ocean/climate. Fish. Oceanogr.
, 8, 18–24.Google Scholar
Yasuda, K. and K. Hanawa (1997): Decadal changes in the mode waters in the midlatitude North Pacific. J. Phys. Oceanogr.
, 27, 858–870.Google Scholar
Yasuda, T. and Y. Kitamura (2003): Long-term variability of North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water in response to spinup of the subtropical gyre. J. Oceanogr.
, 59, 279–290.Google Scholar
Yasunaka, S. and K. Hanawa (2002): Regimes shifts in the Northern Hemisphere SST field. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan
, 80, 119–135.Google Scholar
Yasunaka, S. and K. Hanawa (2003): Regime shifts in the Northern Hemisphere SST field: Revisited in relation to tropical variations. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan
, 81, 415–424.Google Scholar
Zebdi, A. and J. S. Collie (1995): Effect of climate on herring (Clupea pallasi) population dynamics in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. p. 277–290. In Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, ed. by R. J. Beamish, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 1
Zhang, Y., J. M. Wallace and D. S. Battisti (1997): ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900-93. J. Climate
, 10, 1004–1020.Google Scholar