Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 47-63

First online:

Critical Ingredients of Consumer Run Services: Results of a National Survey

  • Mark C. HolterAffiliated withUniversity of Michigan School of Social Work
  • , Carol T. MowbrayAffiliated withUniversity of Michigan School of Social Work
  • , Chyrell D. BellamyAffiliated withUniversity of Michigan School of Social Work
  • , Peter MacFarlaneAffiliated withUniversity of Michigan School of Social Work
  • , Jean DukarskiAffiliated withJustice in Mental Health Organization

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Fidelity criteria are increasingly used in program monitoring and evaluation, but are difficult to derive for emerging models (i.e., those not based on theory or a research demonstration project). We describe steps used to develop and operationalize fidelity criteria for consumer-run (CR) mental health services: articulating and operationalizing criteria based on published literature, then revising and validating the criteria through expert judgments using a modified Delphi method. Respondents rated highest those structural and process components emphasizing the value of consumerism: consumer control, consumer choices and opportunities for decision-making, voluntary participation (and the absence of coercion), and respect for members by staff.

fidelity consumer participation empowerment psychosocial rehabilitation community mental health center mental health services program evaluation self-help groups United States