Dynamic management of genetic resources: maintenance of outcrossing in experimental metapopulations of a predominantly inbreeding species
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Dynamic management of genetic resources inpredominantly inbreeding species requiresincreased levels of outcrossing to limit theloss of genetic variation due to smallereffective sizes and to favour the emergence ofnew genetic combinations. Here, we show thatoutcrossing rates can artificially bepermanently increased in experimental evolvingplant metapopulations, using Arabidopsisthaliana as a model. We introducedmale-sterility genes and used an adequatemanagement of the resulting female plants tomodify the outcrossing rates. As expected, theincrease in outcrossing resulted in lowerlevels of heterozygote deficiency (F is) than observed in natural populationsof A. thaliana and therefore in themaintenance of potentially higher levels ofgenetic variation. An additional selectiveadvantage for females' offspring, due to theproduction of larger seeds by females and apossible heterosis effect, furthermore led tosmaller F is than expected from therealized outcrossing rate. This selectiveadvantage also resulted in an increase infemale frequency, especially in metapopulationswith large population sizes, creating anon-causal negative correlation between femalefrequency and heterozygote deficiency.
- Abbott RJ, Gomes MF (1989) Population genetic structure and outcrossing rate of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Heredity, 62, 411–418.
- Allard RW (1992) Reproductive systems and dynamic management of genetic resources. In: Reproductive Biology and Plant Breeding (eds. Dattée Y, Dumas C, Gallais A), pp. 325–333. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Andalo C, Goldringer I, Godelle B (2001) Inter-and intragenotypic competition under elevated carbon dioxide in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ecology, 82, 157–164.
- Bürger R (1999) Evolution of genetic variability and the advantage of sex and recombination in changing environments. Genetics, 153, 1055–1069.
- Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D (1978) A model for the evolution of dioecy and gynodioecy. Am. Nat., 112, 975–997. CrossRef
- Charlesworth D, Charlesworth B (1995) Quantitative genetics in plants: The effect of the breeding system on genetic variability. Evolution, 49, 911–920.
- Darwin C (1877) Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the Same Species. John Murray, London.
- Dattée Y, Dumas C, Gallais A (eds.) (1992) Reproductive Biology and Plant Breeding. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
- Enjalbert J, Goldringer I, David J, Brabant P (1998) The relevance of outcrossing for the dynamic management of genetic resources in predominantly selfing Triticum aestivum L. (bread wheat). Genet. Sel. Evol., 30 (Suppl. 1), S197–S211.
- Frankham RF (1999) Quantitative genetics in conservation biology. Genet. Res., 74, 237–244. CrossRef
- Goldringer I, Enjalbert J, David JL, Paillard S, Pham JL, Brabant P (2001) Dynamic management of genetic resources: A 13 years experiment on wheat. In: Broadening the Genetic Bases of Crop Production (eds. Cooper HD, Spillane C, Hodgkin T), pp. 245–259. CAB International.
- Goudet J (1995) Fstat version 1.2: A computer program to calculate Fstatistics. J. Hered., 86, 485–486.
- Gouyon PH (1983) How to be a self-fertile hermaphrodite. Genet. Sel. Evol., 15, 83–90.
- Gouyon PH, Couvet D (1987) A conflict between two sexes, females and hermaphrodites. Experientia Suppl., 55, 245–261.
- Hamrick JL, Godt MJ (1996) Effects of life history traits on genetic diversity in plant species. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B, 351, 1291–1298.
- Haring V, Gray JE, McClure BA, Anderson MA, Clarke AE (1990) Self-incompatibility: A self recognition system in plants. Science, 250, 937–941.
- Henry JP, Pontis C, David J, Gouyon PH (1991) An experiment on dynamic conservation of genetic resources with metapopulations. In: Species Conservation: A Population-biological Approach (eds. Seitz A, Loeschke V), pp. 185–198. Birkhäuser, Basel.
- Horner HT, Palmer RG (1995) Mechanisms of genic male sterility. Crop Sci., 35, 1527–1535.
- Husband BC, Schemske DW (1996) Evolution of the magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in plants. Evolution, 50, 54–70.
- Kahler AL, Clegg MT, Allard W (1975) Evolutionary changes in the mating system of an experimental population of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 72, 943–946.
- Lavigne C, Reboud X, Lefranc M, Porcher E, Roux F, Olivieri I, Godelle B (2001) Evolution of genetic diversity in metapopulations. Arabidopsis thaliana as an experimental model. Gen. Sel. Evol., 33, S399–S423.
- Lewis D (1941) Male sterility in natural populations of hermaphroditic plants. New Phytol., 40, 56–63.
- Lewis D (1942) The evolution of sex in flowering plants. Biol. Rev., 17, 46–67.
- Liu F, Charlesworth D, Kreitman M (1999) The effect of mating system differences on nucleotide diversity at the phosphoglucose isomerase locus in the plant genus Leavenworthia. Genetics, 151, 343–357.
- Liu F, Zhang L, Charlesworth D (1998) Genetic diversity in Leavenworthia populations with different inbreeding levels. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B, 265, 293–301.
- Long J, Cromwell E, Gold K (2000) On-farm Management of Crop Diversity: An Introductory Bibliography. Overseas Development Institute, Intermediate Technology Development Group.
- Pollak E (1987) On the theory of partially inbreeding finite populations. I. Partial selfing. Genetics, 117, 353–360.
- SAS Institute (2000) SAS/STAT User Guide, Version 8. SAS Publishing, Cary, NC.
- Schoen DJ, Brown HD (1991) Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 4494–4497.
- Schultz ST, Lynch M (1997) Mutation and extinction: The role of variable mutational effects, synergistic epistasis, beneficial mutations, and degree of outcrossing. Evolution, 51, 1363–1371.
- Snape JW, Lawrence MJ (1971) The breeding system of Arabidopsis thaliana. Heredity, 27, 299–302.
- Wang J, Caballero A (1999) Developments in predicting the effective size of subdivided populations. Heredity, 82, 212–226. CrossRef
- Wright S (1969) The theory of gene frequency. In: Evolution and the Genetics of Populations, pp. 194–196. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
- Dynamic management of genetic resources: maintenance of outcrossing in experimental metapopulations of a predominantly inbreeding species
Volume 5, Issue 2 , pp 259-269
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Arabidopsis thaliana
- heterozygote deficiency
- seed size
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Laboratoire Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, Université Paris-XI /, CNRS UMR 8079, Bâtiment 360, F-91405, Orsay Cedex, France
- 2. Division of Biology, University of California, San Diego, MC 0116, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA