, Volume 112, Issue 1, pp 1-31

An Improved Mellor–Yamada Level-3 Model with Condensation Physics: Its Design and Verification

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Abstract

A computational scheme for an improved Mellor–Yamada(M–Y) Level-3 model with condensation physics is proposedand its performance is examined against large-eddy-simulationdata on radiation fog. The improved M–Y model greatlycorrects several shortcomings of the original M–Y model:the underestimations of the mixed-layer depth and themagnitude of turbulent kinetic energy, and the discrepanciesin the formation and dissipation times of the fog. Inaddition the improved M–Y model can reproduce theoccurrence of Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and periodicoscillations due to its energy cycle. It is shown that theoptimization of both the closure constants and the masterlength scale is required for this improvement.

The improved M–Y model has an improvement also in theLevel-2.5 version. Although the performance of theLevel-2.5 version is not so good as that of the Level-3version, the former has the advantage of relatively lowcomputational cost and is popularly used in operationalweather forecasts. Our computational scheme for theimproved M–Y model allows us to switch its hierarchylevels easily according to the purpose.