O. T. Oftedal, W. D. Bowen, and D. J. Boness (1993). Energy transfer by lactating hooded seals, and nutrient deposition in their pups, during the four days from birth to weaning. Physiol. Zool.
O. T. Oftedal (1993). The adaptation of milk secretion to the constraints of fasting in bears, seals and baleen whales. J. Dairy Sci.
S. J. Iverson, O. T. Oftedal, W. D. Bowen, D. J. Boness, and J. Sampugna (1995). Prenatal and postnatal transfer of fatty acids from mother to pup in the hooded seal. J. Comp. Physiol.
S. J. Iverson, W. D. Bowen, D. J. Boness, and O. T. Oftedal (1993). The effect of maternal size and milk energy output on pup growth in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). Physiol. Zool.
M. B. Kretzmann, D. P. Costa, and B. J. LeBoeuf (1993). Maternal energy investment in elephant seal pups: evidence for sexual equality? Am. Natl.
C. Lydersen, M. O. Hammill, and K. M. Kovacs (1995). Milk intake, growth and energy consumption in pups of ice-breeding grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. J. Comp. Physiol.
O. T. Oftedal, W. D. Bowen, and D. J. Boness (1996). Lactation performance and nutrient deposition in pups of the harp seal, Phoca groenlandica, on ice floes off southeast Labrador. Physiol. Zool.
O. T. Oftedal (1984). Milk composition, milk yield and energy output at peak lactation: a comparative review. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.
E. J. Slijper (1962). Whales, Hutchinson and Co., London.
O. T. Oftedal (1980). Milk composition and formula selection for hand-rearing young mammals. In E. R. Maschgan, M. E. Allen, and L. E. Fisher (eds.), Dr. Scholl Nutrition Conference—A conference on the Nutrition of Captive Wild Animals, Lincoln Park Zoological Gardens, Chicago, Illinois, pp. 67–83.
P. Purdie (1885). Chemical composition of the milk of the porpoise. Chem. News J. Phys. Sci.
O. T. Oftedal and S. J. Iverson (1987). Hydrogen isotope methodology for the measurement of milk intake and the energetics of growth in suckling young. In A. C. Huntley, D. P. Costa, G. A. J. Worthy, and M. A. Castellini (eds.), Approaches to Marine Mammal Energetics, Society for Marine Mammalogy, pp. 67–96.
D. P. Costa (1991). Reproductive and foraging energetics of pinnipeds: implications for life history patterns. In D. Renouf (ed.), Behaviour of Pinnipeds, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 300–344.
D. J. Boness and W. D. Bowen (1996). The evolution of maternal care in pinnipeds. Bioscience
O. T. Oftedal, D. J. Boness, and R. A. Tedman (1987). The behavior, physiology, and anatomy of lactation in the Pinnipedia. Curr. Mammal.
W. Scoresby (1820). An Account of the Arctic Regions with a History and a Description of the Northern Whale-Fishery, Archibald Constable, Edinburgh, Scotland.
F. D. Bennett (1840). Narrative of a Whaling Voyage Round the Globe from the Year 1833 to 1836, Richard Bentley, London.
C. M. Scammon (1874). The Marine Mammals of the Northwestern Coast of North America, Described and illustrated, together with an account of the American Whale-Fishery, John H. Carmany, San Francisco.
D. G. Lillie (1915). Cetacea. In British Antarctic (“Terra Nova”) Expedition, 1910. Natural History Report. Zoology, British Museum (Natural History), London, pp. 85–124.
M. Takata (1922). Untersuchungen über Cetacea. II. Über die Milch des Finnwals. Tohuku J. Exper. Med.
K. Takemura (1927). Untersuchungen über Cetacea. XXVII. Über die Milch verschiedener Walarten. Jap. J. Med. Sci. II. Biochem.
N. A. Mackintosh and J. F. G. Wheeler (1929). Southern blue and fin whales. Discov. Rep.
Tönnesen and Johnsen (1982). The History of Modern Whaling. University of California Press, Berkeley, Caifornia.
E. W. van Lennep and E. W. van Utrecht (1953). Preliminary report on the study of the mammary glands of whales. Norsk Hvalfangst-Tid.
R. G. Chittleborough (1958). The breeding cycle of the female humpback whale Megaptera nodosa. Austr. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.
D. E. Sergeant (1962). The biology of the pilot or pothead whale Globicephala malaena(Traill) in Newfoundland waters. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.
P. B. Best, P. A. S. Canham, and N. Macleod (1984). Patterns of reproduction in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:51–79.
S. H. Shane, R. S. Wells, and B. Wursig (1986). Ecology, behavior and social organization of the bottlenose dolphin: a review. Mar. Mammal Sci.
W. F. Perrin and S. B. Reilly (1984). Reproductive parameters of dolphins and small whales of the family Delphinidae. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:97–133.
W. D. Bowen (1991). Behavioural ecology of pinniped neonates. In D. Renouf (ed.), Behaviour of Pinnipeds, Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 66–127.
C. Lockyer (1981). Growth and energy budgets of large baleen whales from the southern hemisphere. In Mammals in the Seas. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Vol. 3, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 379–487.
C. Lockyer (1984). Review of baleen whale (Mysticeti) reproduction and implications for management. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:27–50.
P. B. Best (1966). A case of prolonged lactation in the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). Norsk Hvalfangst-Tid.
C. Lockyer (1981). Estimation of the energy costs of growth, maintenance and reproduction in the female minke whale, (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), from the southern hemisphere. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.
P. B. Best (1982). Seasonal abundance, feeding, reproduction, age and growth in minke whales off Durban (with incidental observations from the Antarctic). Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.
R. G. Chittleborough (1965). Dynamics of two populations of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae(Borowski). Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res.
D. A. Glockner-Ferrari and M. J. Ferrari (1984). Reproduction in humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawaiian waters. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.
L. Baraff and M. T. Weinrich (1993). Separation of humpback whale mothers and calves on a feeding ground in early autumn. Mar. Mammal Sci.
S. L. Swartz (1986). Gray whale migratory, social and breeding behavior. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 8:207–229.
D. W. Rice and A. A. Wolman (1971). The Life History and Ecology of the Gray Whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Special Publication No. 3, American Society of Mammalogists, Stillwater, Oklahoma.
W. R. Koski, R. A. Davis, G. W. Miller, and D. E. Withrow (1993). Reproduction. In J. J. Burns, J. J. Montague, and C. J. Cowles (eds.), The Bowhead Whale, Society for Marine Mammalogy, Spec. Publication 2, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 239–274.
L. F. Lowry (1993). Foods and feeding ecology. In J. J. Burns, J. J. Montague, and C. J. Cowles (eds.), The Bowhead Whale, Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 201–238.
P. K. Hamilton, M. K. Marx, and S. D. Kraus (1995). Weaning in North Atlantic right whales. Mar. Mammal Sci.
D. E. Gaskin (1982). The Ecology of Whales and Dolphins. Heinemann, London.
T. Kasuya (1985). Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst.
J. E. Heyning (1988). Presence of solid food in a young calf killer whale (Orcinus orca). Mar. Mammal Sci.
N. J. Haenel (1986). General notes on the behavioral ontogeny of Puget Sound killer whales and the occurrence of allomaternal behavior. In B. C. Kirkevold and J. S. Lockard (eds.), Behavioral Biology of Killer Whales, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, pp. 285–300.
T. Kasuya and H. Marsh (1984). Life history and reproductive biology of the short-finned pilot whale, Globicephala macrorhynchus, off the Pacific coast of Japan. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:259–310.
S. Ridgway, T. Kamolnick, M. Reddy, and C. Curry (1995). Orphan-induced lactation in Tursiopsand analysis of collected milk. Mar. Mammal Sci.
P. B. Best (1968). The sperm whale (Physeter catodon) off the west coast of South Africa. 2. Reproduction in the female. Investl. Rep. Div. Sea Fish. S. Afr.
R. Gambell (1972). Sperm whales off Durban. Discov. Rep.
A. J. Read and A. A. Hohn (1995). Life in the fast lane: the life history of harbor porpoises from the Gulf of Maine. Mar. Mammal Sci.
D. E. Gaskin, G. J. D. Smith, A. P. Watson, W. Y. Yasui, and D. B. Yurick (1984). Reproduction in the porpoises (Phocoenidae): Implications for management. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:135–148.
R. L. Brownell (1984). Review of reproduction in platanistid dolphins. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:149–158.
J. G. Mead (1984). Survey of reproductive data for the beaked whales (Ziphiidae). Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special issue) 6:91–96.
D. E. Sergeant (1973). Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in western Hudson Bay. J. Fish. Res. Board Can.
H. W. Braham (1984). Review of reproduction in the white whale, Delphinapterus leucas, narwhal, Monodon monoceros, and Irrawady dolphin, Orcaella brevirostris, with comments on stock assessment. Rep. Int. Whal. Commn.(Special Issue) 6:81–89.
W. N. Bonner (1984). Lactation strategies in pinnipeds: Problems for a marine mammalian group. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.
W. D. Bowen, O. T. Oftedal, and D. J. Boness (1992). Mass and energy transfer during lactation in a small phocid, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Physiol. Zool.
D. J. Boness, W. D. Bowen, and O. T. Oftedal (1994). Evidence of a maternal foraging cycle resembling that of otariid seals in a small phocid, the harbor seal. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
B. P. Kelly and D. Wartzok (1996). Ringed seal diving behavior in the breeding season. Can. J. Zool.
A. Scheibe (1908). Die Zusammensetzung der Walfischmilch. Münchener Med. Wochenschr.
O. T. Oftedal and S. J. Iverson (1995). Phylogenetic variation in the gross composition of milks. In R. G. Jensen (ed.), Handbook of Milk Composition, Academic Press, New York, pp. 749–789.
A. A. Berzin (1972). The Sperm Whale(Kashalot). Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem.
B. A. Zenkovich (1938). Milk of large-sized cetaceans. Comptes Rendus(Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS
C. Lockyer (1981). Estimates of growth and energy budget for the sperm whale Physeter catodon. In Mammals in the Seas. FAO Fisheries Series No. 5, Vol. 3, General Papers and Large Cetaceans, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, pp. 489–504.
A. V. Yablokov, V. M. Belkovich, and V. I. Borisov (1974). Whales and Dolphins. Part I. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia.
S. E. J. Daly, A. Di Rosso, R. A. Owens, and P. E. Hartmann (1993). Degree of breast emptying explains changes in the fat content, but not fatty acid composition of human milk. Exper. Physiol.
O. T. Oftedal, D. J. Boness, and W. D. Bowen (1988). The composition of hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) milk: an adaptation for postnatal fattening. Can. J. Zool.
J. P. Y. Arnould and I. L. Boyd (1995). Inter-and intra-annual variation in milk composition in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella). Physiol. Zool.
J. C. D. White (1953). Composition of whales' milk. Nature
M. E. Gregory, S. K. Kon, S. J. Rowland, and S. Y. Thompson (1955). The composition of the milk of the blue whale. J. Dairy Res.
M. E. Q. Pilson and D. W. Waller (1970). Composition of milk from spotted and spinner porpoises. J. Mammal.
R. Jenness and D. K. Odell (1978). Composition of milk of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
M. M. Bryden (1968). Lactation and suckling in relation to early growth of the southern elephant seal. Aust. J. Zool.
M. Peaker and J. A. Goode (1978). The milk of the fur seal, Arctocephalus tropicalis gazella;in particular the composition of the aqueous phase. J. Zool., London
185:469–476. [Correct species designation: Mirounga leonina]
A. R. Carlini, M. E. I. Marquez, G. Soave, D. F. Vergani, and P. A. Ronayne de Ferrer (1994). Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina:composition of milk during lactation. Polar Biol.
M. A. Hindell, M. M. Bryden, and H. R. Burton (1994). Early growth and milk composition in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina). Aust. J. Zool.
M. Riedman and C. L. Ortiz (1979). Changes in milk composition during lactation in the northern elephant seal. Physiol. Zool.
M. B. Kretzmann, D. P. Costa, L. V. Higgins, and D. J. Needham (1991). Milk composition of Australian sea lions, Neophoca cinerea:variability in lipid content. Can. J. Zool.
D. M. Ben Shaul (1962). The composition of the milk of wild animals. Int. Zoo Yearbk.
R. Jenness and R. E. Sloan (1970). The composition of milks of various species: a review. Dairy Sci. Abstr.
G. J. B. Ross (1984). Cetaceans of the south east coast of southern Africa. Ann. Cape Prov. Mus.(Nat. Hist.) 15:173–410.
V. M. Peddemors, H. J. H. de Muelenaere, and K. Devchand (1989). Comparative milk composition of the bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), humpback dolphin (Sousa plumbea) and common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) from southern African waters. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
G. J. B. Ross (1979). Records of pygmy and dwarf sperm whales, genus Kogia, from southern Africa, with biological notes and some comparisons. Ann. Cape Prov. Mus. (Nat. Hist.)
S. Pervaiz and K. Brew (1986). Composition of the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
A. Klem (1935). Studies in the biochemistry of whale oils. Hvalraad. Skrifter
S. J. Iverson and O. T. Oftedal (1995). Phylogenetic and ecological variation in the fatty acid composition of milks. In R. G. Jensen (ed.), Handbook of Milk Composition, Academic Press, New York, pp. 789–827.
R. G. Ackman, C. A. Eaton, and S. N. Hooper (1968). Lipids of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) from North Atlantic waters. IV. Fin whale milk. Can. J. Biochem.
R. G. Ackman, C. A. Eaton, and E. D. Mitchell (1971). The bottle-nosed dolphin Tursiops truncatus:Fatty acid composition of milk tryglyerides. Can. J. Biochem.
J. S. Cama and M. L. Meara (1953). The component milk fats of Balaenoptera physalus(Finner whale). Biochem. J.
B. H. Lauer and B. E. Baker (1969). Whale milk. I. Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) milk: gross composition and fatty acid constitution. Can. J. Zool.
R. L. Glass and R. Jenness (1971). Comparative biochemical studies of milks—VI. Constituent fatty acids of milk fats of additional species. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
H. Morii (1981). Fatty acids in milk of marine little toothed whales Stenella attenuata. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish.
S. J. Iverson, K. J. Frost, and L. F. Lowry (1997). Fatty acid signatures reveal fine scale structure of foraging distribution of harbour seals and their prey in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Marine Ecol. Progr. Ser.(in press).
M. Messer, E. A. Crisp, and K. Newgrain (1988). Studies on the carbohydrate content of milk of the crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
D. E. Ullrey, C. C. Schwartz, P. A. Whetter, T. Rajeshwar Rao, J. R. Euber, S. G. Cheng, and J. R. Brunner (1984). Blue-green color and composition of Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) milk. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
C. A. Harms (1993). Composition of prepartum secretions of two bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus L.). J. Wildl. Dis.
S. Pervaiz and K. Brew (1986). Purification and characterization of the major whey proteins from the milks of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and the beagle (Canis familiaris). Archives of Biochem. Biophysics
F. W. Brambell (1970). The Transmission of Passive Immunity from Mother to Young, American Elsevier, New York.
M. E. I. Marquez, N. H. Slobodianik, P. A. Ronayne de Ferrer, A. R. Carlini, D. F. Vergani, and G. A. Daneri (1995). Immunoglobulin A levels in southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) milk during the suckling period. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.
R. Jenness (1979). Comparative aspects of milk proteins. J. Dairy Res.
K. Ohta, T. Watarai, T. Oishi, Y. Ueshiba, S. Hirose, T. Yoshizawa, Y. Akikusa, M. Sato, and H. Okano (1955). Composition of fin whale milk. Sci. Rep. Whales Res. Inst.
M. Begg (1947). Ascorbic acid content of whale's milk. Nature
J. P. Y. Arnould, I. L. Boyd, and D. G. Socha (1996). Milk consumption and growth efficiency in Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) pups. Can. J. Zool.
J. L. Linzell (1972). Milk yield, energy loss in milk, and mammary gland weight in different species. Dairy Sci. Dairy Sci. Abstr.
A. Hanwell and M. Peaker (1977). Physiological effects of lactation on the mother. Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond.
C. W. Turner (1952). The Mammary Gland: The Anatomy of the Udder of Cattle and Domestic Animals. Lucas Brother Publishers, Columbia, Missouri.
R. M. Laws (1961). Reproduction, growth and age of southern fin whales. Discov. Rep.
R. Gambell (1968). Seasonal cycles and reproduction in sei whales of the southern hemisphere. Discov. Rep.
L. H. Matthews (1938). Notes on the southern right whale, Eubalaena australis. Discov. Rep.
O. T. Oftedal (1981). Milk, protein and energy intakes of suckling mammalian young: a comparative study. Ph.D. thesis. Cornell University.
A. G. Tomilin (1946). Lactation and nutrition in cetaceans. Comptes Rendus(Doklady) Acad. Sci. URSS
P. F. Brodie (1969). Duration of lactation in Cetacea: an indicator of required learning? Am. Midl. Natl.
C. D. Tilden and O. T. Oftedal (1995). The bioenergetics of reproduction in prosimian primates: Is it related to female dominance? In L. Alterman (ed.), Creatures of the Dark: Tne Nocturnal Prosimians, Plenum Press, New York.
P. F. Frankland and F. J. Hambly (1890). The composition of the milk of the bottle-nose whale (Globicephalus melas). Chem. News J. Phys. Sci.
L. Eichelberger, E. S. Fetcher, E. M. K. Geiling, and B. J. Vos (1940). The composition of dolphin milk. J. Biol. Chem.
H. W. Symons and R. D. Weston (1958). Studies on the humpback whale (Megaptera nodosa) in the Bellingshausen Sea. Norsk Hvalfangst-Tid.
J. F. Allen (1977). Dolphin reproduction in oceanaria in Australasia and Indonesia. In S. H. Ridgway and K. Benirschke (eds.), Breeding Dolphins: Present Status, Suggestions for the Future, US Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C., pp. 85–108.
J. Clowes (1929). Southern blue and fin whales. Appendix I. A note on the composition of whale milk. Discov. Rep.
P. Backhaus (1904). Zusammensetzung der Walmilch. Berlin Molkerei-Z.
P. Backhaus (1904). Zusammensetzung der Walmilch. Österreich. Molkerei-Z.
E. F. Heyerdahl (1930). Om sammensetningen av hvaldyrenes melk og om forholdene ved deres laktasjon. Publication No. 8, Kommandoer Christian Christenses Hvalfangstmuseum, Sandefjord, Norway.
S. Schmidt-Nielsen and F. Frog (1933). On the composition of the fat from a sample of whale milk. Kongl. Norske Vidensk. Selskab Forhandlinger
P. B. Best (1960). Further information on Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeniAnderson) from Saldanha Bay, South Africa. Norsk Hvalfangst-Tid.
T. Pedersen (1952). A note on humpback oil and on the milk and milk fat from this species (Megaptera nodosa). Norsk Hvalfangst-Tid.
F. Wilke, T. Taniwaki, and N. Kuboda (1953). Phocoenoidesand Lagenorhynchusin Japan, with notes on hunting. J. Mammal.