Carbon nanotube/polytetrafluoroethylene (CNT/PTFE) composites with different volume fractions were prepared and their friction and wear properties were investigated using a ring-on-block under dry conditions. It was found that CNTs signifi-cantly increased the wear resistance of PTFE composites and decreased their coefficient of friction. PTFE composites with 15–20 vol.% CNTs exhibited very high wear resistance. The significant improvements in the tribological properties of CNT/PTFE composites are attributed to the super-strong mechanical properties and the very high aspect ratio of CNTs. The CNTs greatly reinforce the structure of the PTFE-based composites and thereby greatly reduce the adhesive and plough wear of CNT/PTFE composites. The CNTs are released from the composite during sliding and transferred to the interface of the friction couples. They thus serve as spacers, preventing direct contact between the mating surfaces and thereby reducing both wear rate and friction coefficient.