American Journal of Community Psychology

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 449–470

Psychological Distress and Help Seeking in Rural America


  • Danny R. Hoyt
    • Department of SociologyIowa State University
  • Rand D. Conger
    • Iowa State University
  • Jill Gaffney Valde
    • Iowa State University
  • Karen Weihs
    • George Washington University

DOI: 10.1023/A:1024655521619

Cite this article as:
Hoyt, D.R., Conger, R.D., Valde, J.G. et al. Am J Community Psychol (1997) 25: 449. doi:10.1023/A:1024655521619


The implications of exposure to acute and chronic stressors, and seeking mental health care, for increased psychological distress are examined. Research on economic stress, psychological distress, and rural agrarian values each point to increasing variability within rural areas. Using data from a panel study of 1,487 adults, a model predicting changes in depressive symptoms was specified and tested. Results show effects by size of place for men but not for women. Men living in rural villages of under 2,500 or in small towns of 2,500 to 9,999 people had significantly greater increases in depressive symptoms than men living in the country or in larger towns or cities. Size of place was also related to level of stigma toward mental health care. Persons living in the most rural environments were more likely to hold stigmatized attitudes toward mental health care and these views were strongly predictive of willingness to seek care. The combination of increased risk and less willingness to seek assistance places men living in small towns and villages in particular jeopardy for continuing problems involving depressed mood.

psychological distressseeking mental health care

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997