Regulating access to genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity: an analysis of selected case studies
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In 1992 parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) agreed to develop and implement policies to regulate and facilitate access to genetic resources (AGR). We examine regulations and agreements in Brazil, Colombia, and the Philippines in detail and discuss how these countries are implementing the AGR mandate. In particular, we evaluate progress toward achieving the CBD objectives of conserving biological diversity, using its components in a sustainable manner, and equitably sharing the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources. We highlight the difficulties in developing and implementing these policies, arising from the conflicting goals of regulating and facilitating AGR, as well as the special character of genetic resources, existing ex situ collections, issues of ownership and tenure, and the dearth of legal, institutional, and scientific capacity in many countries. We recommend (1) independent, multidisciplinary evaluation of the success of the access policy in achieving CBD objectives, (2) resolution of the conflict between traditional land tenure and legal property rights of genetic resources so as to match conservation obligations with benefit-sharing rights, (3) recognition that benefits obtained from AGR may be entirely non-monetary, and (4) that countries provide a 'two-track’ AGR application process separately for commercial and non-commercial users.
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- Regulating access to genetic resources under the Convention on Biological Diversity: an analysis of selected case studies
Biodiversity & Conservation
Volume 12, Issue 7 , pp 1511-1524
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Andean Pact
- Convention on Biological Diversity
- Genetic resources
- International environmental law
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Environmental Biology, Columbia University, 1200 Amsterdam Ave., New York, USA
- 2. Division of Vertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York, USA
- 3. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, USA
- 4. Wildlife Conservation Society, 2300 Southern Boulevard, Bronx, USA
- 5. Columbia University Law School, 435 W 116th St., New York, USA
- 6. School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University, 420 W 118th St., New York, USA