Contribution of amino compounds to dissolved organic nitrogen in forest soils
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) may play an important role in plantnutrition and nitrogen fluxes in forest ecosystems. In spite of the apparentimportance of DON, there is a paucity of information concerning its chemicalcomposition. However, it is exactly this chemical characterization that isrequired to understand the importance of DON in ecosystem processes. Theprimaryobjective of this study was to characterize the distribution of free aminoacidsand hydrolyzable peptides/proteins in the DON fraction of Oa horizon leachatesalong an extreme edaphic gradient in northern California. Insitu soil solutions were extracted by centrifugation from Oahorizonscollected beneath Pinus muricata (Bishop pine) andCupressus pygmaea (pygmy cypress) on slightlyacidic/fertile and highly acidic/infertile sites. DON accounted for 77 to99% of the total dissolved nitrogen in Oa horizon leachates. Nitrogen infree amino acids and alkyl amines ranged from 0.04–0.07 mgN/L on the low fertility site to 0.45–0.49 mg N/L onthe high fertility site, and accounted for 1.5 to 10.6% of the DON fraction.Serine, glutamic acid, leucine, ornithine, alanine, aspartic acid andmethylamine were generally the most abundant free amino compounds. Combinedamino acids released by acid hydrolysis accounted for 48 to 74% of theDON, suggesting that proteins and peptides were the main contributor to DON inOa horizon leachates. Together, nitrogen from free andcombined amino compounds accounted for 59 to 78% of the DON. Most of theDON was found in the hydrophobic fraction, which suggests the presence ofprotein/peptide-polyphenol complexes or amino compounds associated withhumic substances. Because free and combined amino acids can be an importantnitrogen source for some plants, soil DON may play an important role in plantnutrition and ecosystem function.
Abuzinadah R.A. andRead D.J. 1986a. The role of proteins in the nitrogen nutrition of ectomycorrhizal plants. I. Utilization of peptides and proteins by ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 103: 481-493.
Abuzinadah R.A. andRead D.J. 1986b. The role of proteins in the nitrogen nutrition of ectomycorrhizal plants. III. Protein utilization by Betula, Picea and Pinus in mycorrhizal association with Hebeloma crustuliniforme. New Phytol. 103: 507-514.
Abuzinadah R.A. andRead D.J. 1989. The role of proteins in the nitrogen nutrition of ectomycorrhizal plants. IV. The utilization of peptides by birch (Betula pendula L.) infected with different mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytol. 112: 55-60.
Arheimer B.,Andersson L. andLepisto A. 1996. Variation of nitrogen concentration in forest streams-influence of flow, seasonality and catchment characteristics. J. Hydrol. 197: 281-304.
Bajwa R. andRead D.J. 1985. The biology of mycorrhiza in the Ericaceae. IX. Peptides as nitrogen sources for the ericoid endophyte and for mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. New Phytol. 101: 459-467.
Bending G.D. andRead D.J. 1996. Nitrogen mobilization from protein-polyphenol complex by ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28: 1603-1612.
Campbell J.L.,Hornbeck J.W.,McDowell W.H.,Buso D.C.,Shanley J.B. andLikens G.E. 2000. Dissolved organic nitrogen budgets for upland, forested ecosystems in New England. Biogeochem. 49: 123-142.
Carlson R.M. 1978. Automated separation and conductimetric determination of ammonia and dissolved carbon dioxide. Anal. Chem. 50: 1528-1531.
Carlson R.M. 1986. Continuous flow reduction of nitrate to ammonia with granular zinc. Anal. Chem. 58: 1590-1591.
Chapin F.S. 1995. New cog in the nitrogen cycle. Nature 377: 199-200.
Chapin F.S.,Moilanen L. andKielland K. 1993. Preferential use of organic nitrogen for growth by a non-mycorrhizal arctic sedge. Nature 361: 150-153.
Chapman P.J.,Edwards A.C.,Reynolds B.,Cresser M.S. andNeal C. 1998. The nitrogen content of rivers in upland Britain: The significance of organic nitrogen. IAHS Publ. No. 248. In: Hydrology, Water Resources and Ecology in Headwaters, Proceedings of HeadWater' 98 Conference, April 1998. Meran/Merano, Italy, 443-450.
Confer D.R.,Logan B.E.,Aiken B.S. andKirchman D.L. 1995. Measurement of dissolved free and combined amino acids in unconcentrated wastewaters using high performance liquid chromatography. Water Environ. Res. 67: 120-125.
Dahlgren R.A. 1993. Comparison of soil solution extraction procedures: effects on solute chemistry. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 24: 1783-1794.
Dahlgren R.A. andUgolini F.C. 1989. Aluminum fractionation of soil solutions from unperturbed and tephra-treated Spodosols, Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 559-566.
Fahey T. andYavitt J. 1988. Soil solution chemistry in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia) ecosystems, southeastern Wyoming, USA. Biogeochem 6: 91-118.
Finlay R.D.,Frostegard A. andSonnerfeldt A.M. 1992. Utilization of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources by ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis with Pinus contorta. Dougl. Ex Loud. New Phytol. 120: 105-115.
Griffiths P. andCaldwell B. 1992. Mycorrhizal mat communities in forest soils. In: Read D.,Lewis D.,Fitter A. andAlexander I. (eds), Mycorrhizas in Ecosystems. CAB International, Wallingford, 98-105.
Gupta U.C. andReuszer H.W. 1967. Effect of plant species on the amino acid content and nitrification of soil organic matter. Soil Sci. 104: 395-400.
Hagedorn F.,Schleppi P.,Waldner P. andFluhler H. 2000. Export of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen from Gleysol dominated catchments-the significance of water flow paths. Biogeochem. 50: 137-161.
Harriman R.,Curtis C. andEdwards A.C. 1998. An empirical approach for assessing the relationship between nitrogen deposition and nitrate leaching from upland catchments in the United Kingdom using runoff chemistry. Water Air Soil Pollut. 105: 193-203.
Hedin L.O.,Armesto J.J. andJohnson A.H. 1995. Patterns of nutrient loss from unpolluted, old-growth temperate forests: Evaluation of biogeochemical theory. Ecology 76: 493-509.
Jardine P.M.,Weber N.L. andMcCarthy J.F. 1989. Mechanism of dissolved organic carbon adsorption on soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 53: 1378-1385.
Jones B.N.,Paabo S. andStein S. 1981. Amino acid analysis and enzymatic sequence determination of peptides by an improved o-phthaldialdehyde precolumn labeling procedure. J. Liq. Chromatog. 4: 565-586.
Kaiser K. andZech W. 1998. Soil dissolved organic matter sorption as influenced by organic and sesquioxide coatings and sorbed sulfate. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 62: 129-136.
Keeney D.R. andBremner J.M. 1964. Effect of cultivation on nitrogen distribution in soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 28: 653-656.
Keil R.G. andKirchman D.L. 1991. Dissolved combined amino acids in marine waters as determined by a vapor-phase hydrolysis method. Marine Chem. 33: 243-259.
Khan S.U. 1971. Nitrogen fractions in a gray wooded soil as influenced by long-term cropping systems and fertilizers. Can. J. Soil Sci. 51: 431-437.
Kroeff E.P. andPietrzyk D.J. 1978. Investigation of the retention and separation of amino acids, peptides, and derivatives on porous copolymers by high performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chem. 50: 502-511.
Leake J.R. andRead D.J. 1989. Effects of phenolic compounds on nitrogen mobilisation by ericoid mycorrhizal systems. Agric. Ecosys. Environ. 29: 225-236.
Leenheer J.A. andHuffman E.W.D. 1979. Analytical method for dissolved-organic carbon fractionation. U.S. Geological Survey, Water-Resources Investigations, 79-84.
Lipson D.A.,Raab T.K.,Schmidt S.K. andMonson R.K. 1999. Variation in competitive abilities of plants and microbes for specific amino acids. Biol. Fertil. Soils 29: 257-261.
Lytle C.R. andPerdue E.M. 1981. Free, proteinaceous, and humic-hound amino acids in river water containing high concentrations of aquatic humus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 224-228.
McHale M.R.,Mitchell M.J.,McDonnell J.J. andCirmo C.P. 2000. Nitrogen solutes in an Adirondack forested watershed: Importance of dissolved organic nitrogen. Biogeochem. 48: 165-184.
Melin E. andNilsson H. 1953. Transfer of labeled nitrogen from glutamic acid to pine seedlings through the mycelium of Boletus variegarus (Sw) Fr. Nature 171: 134.
Merritts D.J.,Chadwick O.A. andHendricks D.M. 1991. Rates and processes of soil evolution on uplifted marine terraces, northern California. Geoderma 51: 241-275.
Michalzik B. andMatzner E. 1999. Dynamics of dissolved organic nitrogen and carbon in a Central European Norway spruce ecosystem. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 50: 579-590.
Michalzik B.,Kalbitz K.,Park J.-H.,Solinger S. andMatzner E. 2001. Fluxes and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen-a synthesis for temperate forests. Biogeochem. 52: 173-205.
Monreal C.M. andMcGill W.B. 1985. Centrifugal extraction and determination of free amino acids in soil solutions by TLC using tritiated 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Soil Biol. Biochem. 17: 533-539.
Näsholm T.,Ekblad A.,Nordin A.,Giesler R.,Högberg M. andHögberg P. 1998. Boreal forest plants take up organic nitrogen. Nature 392: 914-916.
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration 1998-99. Local climatological data-monthly summary, Fort Bragg, California. National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC, US.
Northup R.,Yu Z.,Dahlgren R.A. andVogt K. 1995. Polyphenol control of nitrogen release from pine litter. Nature 377: 227-229.
Padgett P.E. andLeonard R.T. 1996. Free amino acid levels and the regulation of nitrate uptake in maize cell suspension cultures. J. Exp. Botany 47: 871-883.
Prescott C.E. andWeetman G.F. 1994. Salal cedar hemlock integrated research program: A synthesis. Faculty of Forestry. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Qualls R.G. 1989. The Biogeochemical Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter in the Soil and Streamwater of a Deciduous Forest Ecosystem: Their Influence on the Retention of Nitrogen, phosphorus, and Carbon. PhD Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, USA.
Qualls R.G. andHaines B.L. 1991. Geochemistry of dissolved organic nutrients in water percolating through a forest ecosystem. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 1112-1123.
Qualls R.G. andHaines B.L. 1992. Biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in forest throughfall, soil solution, and stream water. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 56: 578-586.
Raab T.K.,Lipson D.A. andMonson R.K. 1996. Non-mycorrhizal uptake of amino acids by roots of the alpine sedge Koresia myosuroides: implication for the alpine nitrogen cycle. Oecologia 108: 488-494.
Raab T.K.,Lipson D.A. andMonson R.K. 1999. Soil amino acid utilization among species of the Cyperace: plant and soil processes. Ecology 80: 2408-2419.
Read D.J. 1991. Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Experientia 47: 376-391.
Scalbert A.,Monties B. andJanin J. 1989. Tannin in wood: comparison of different estimation method. J. Agric. Food Chem. 37: 1324-1329.
Schimel J.,Van Cleve K.,Cates R.,Clausen T. andReichardt P. 1996. Effects of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) tannins and low molecular weight phenolics on microbial activity in taiga floodplain soil: Implications for changes in N cycling during succession. Can. J. Bot. 74: 84-90.
Schimel J.P.,Cates R.G. andRuess R. 1998. The role of balsam poplar secondary chemicals in controlling soil nutrient dynamics through succession in the Alaskan taiga. Biogeochem. 42: 221-234.
Schnitzer M. andSpiteller M. 1986. The chemistry of the “unknown” soil nitrogen. Tans. 13th Conf. Int. Soil Sci. Soc., Hamburg 3: 473-474.
Schulten H.R. andSchnitzer M. 1998. The chemistry of soil organic nitrogen: a review. Biol. Fertil. Soils 26: 1-15.
Senwo Z.N. andTabatabai M.A. 1998. Amino acid composition of soil organic matter. Biol. Fertil. Soils 26: 235-242.
Sholars R.E. 1982. The Pygmy Forest and Associated Plant Communities of Coastal Mendocino County. Black Bear Press, California, Mendocino, USA, 50 p.
Sollins P. andMcCorison F.M. 1981. Nitrogen and carbon solution chemistry of an old growth coniferous forests watershed before and after cutting. Water Resour. Res. 17: 1409-1418.
Sowden F.J.,Chen Y. andSchnitzer M. 1977. The nitrogen distribution in soils formed under widely differing climatic conditions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 41: 1524-1526.
Stevenson F.J. 1954. Ion exchange chromatography of amino acids in soil hydrolysates. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 18: 373-376.
Stevenson F.J. 1956. Effect of some long-time rotations on the amino acid composition of the soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 20: 204-208.
Stevenson F.J. 1994. Humus Chemistry. 2nd edn. J Wiley, New York.
Thurman E.M. andMalcolm R.L. 1981. Preparative isolation of aquatic humic substances. Environ. Sci. Technol. 15: 463-466.
Titus B.B.,Sidhu S.S. andMallik A.U. 1995. A summary of some studies on Kalmia angustifolia L.: A problem species in Newfoundland forestry. Canadian Forest Service Information Report N-X-296.
Tsugita A.,Uchida T.,Werner Mewes H. andAtaka T. 1987. A rapid-vapor phase acid (hydrochloric acid and trifluoroacetic acid) hydrolysis of peptide and protein. J. Biochem. 102: 1593-1597.
Van Cleve K. andWhite R. 1980. Forest-floor nitrogen dynamics in a 60-year-old paper birch ecosystem in interior Alaska. Plant Soil 54: 359-381.
Young J.L. andMortenson J.L. 1958. Soil nitrogen complexes. I. Chromatography of amino compounds in soil hydrolysates. Ohio Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Circ. 61: 1-18.
Yu Z.S.,Northup R.R. andDahlgren R.A. 1993. Determination of dissolved organic nitrogen using persulfate oxidation and onductimetric quantification of nitrate-nitrogen. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25: 3161-3169.
- Contribution of amino compounds to dissolved organic nitrogen in forest soils
Volume 61, Issue 2 , pp 173-198
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Amino acids
- Dissolved organic nitrogen
- Nutrient cycling
- Industry Sectors