Berg B 2000 Litter decomposition and organic matter turnover in northern forest soils. For. Ecol. Manage. 133, 13-22.
Berg B and Matzner E 1997 Effect of N deposition on decomposition of plant litter and soil organic matter in forest systems. Environ. Rev. 5, 1-25.
Billings W D, Luken J O, Mortensen D A and Peterson K M 1982 Arctic tundra: a source or sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide in a changing environment? Oecologia 53, 7-11.
Binkley D, Smith F W and Son Y 1995 Nutrient supply and declines in leaf area and production in lodgepole pine. Can. J. For. Res. 25, 621-628.
Bliss L C 1988 Arctic tundra and polar desert biome. In North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Eds. M G Barbour and D W Billings. pp 1-32. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Bliss L C, Heal O W and Moore J J Ed 1981 Tundra ecosystems. A comparative analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Bret-Harte M S, Shaver G R, Zoerner J P, Johnstone J F, Wagner J L, Charez A S, Gunkelman R F, VI, Lippert S C, Laundre J A 2001 Developmental plasticity allows Betula nana to dominate tundra subjected to an altered environment. Ecology 82, 18-32.
Bridgham S D, Updegraff K and J Pastor 1998 Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in northern wetlands. Ecology 79, 1545-1561.
Chapin D M and Bledsoe C S 1992 Nitrogen fixation in arctic plant communities. In Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate: An Ecophysiological Perspective. Ed. F S Chapin, III, R L Jefferies, J F Reynolds, G R Shaver, and J Svoboda. pp 301-320. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
Chapin F S III 1980 The mineral nutrition of wild plants. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 11, 233-260.
Chapin F S, III, Miller P C, Billings W D and Coyne P I 1980 Carbon and nutrient budgets and their control in coastal tundra. In An Arctic Ecosystem: The Coastal Tundra at Barrow, Alaska. Eds. J Brown, P C Miller, L L Tieszen and F L bunnell. pp 458-483. Dowden, Hutchinson, & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
Chapin F S, III, Moilanen L and Kielland K 1993 Preferential use of organic nitrogen for growth by a non-mycorrhizal arctic sedge. Nature 361, 150-153.
Chapin F S, III and Shaver G R 1996 Physiological and growth responses of arctic plants to a field experiment simulating climatic change. Ecology 77, 822-840.
Chapin F S, III, Shaver G R, Giblin A E, Nadelhoffer K J and Laundre J A 1995 Response of arctic tundra to experimental and observed changes in climate, Ecology 76, 694-711.
Chapin F S, III, Vitousek P M and Van Cleve K 1986 The nature of nutrient limitation in plant communities. Am. Nat. 127, 48-58.
Elliot-Fisk D L 1988 The boreal forest. In North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Eds. M G Barbour and D W Billings. pp Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
Fahnestock J T, Jones M H and Welker J M 1999 Wintertime CO2 efflux from arctic soils: Implications for annual carbon budgets. Global Biogeochem. Cyc. 13, 775-779.
Giblin A E, Nadelhoffer K J, Shaver G R, Laundre J A and McKerrow A J 1991 Biogeochemical diversity along a riverside toposequence in arctic Alaska. Ecol. Monogr. 61, 415-435.
Gorham E 1991 Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecol. Appl. 1, 182-195.
Goulden M L, Wofsy S C, Harden J W, Trumbore S E, Crill P M, Gower S T, Fries T, Daube B C, Fan S-M, Sutton D J, Bazzaz A and Munger J W 1998 Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science 279, 214-217.
Grogan P and Chapin F S III 1999 Arctic soil respiration: effects of climate and vegetation depend on season. Ecosystems 2, 451-459.
Hallbäcken L and Zhang L H Q 1998 Effects of experimental acidification, nitrogen addition and liming on ground vegetation in a mature stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in SE Sweden. For. Ecol. Manage. 108, 203-215.
Harden J, O'Neill K P, Trumbore S E, Velduis H and Stocks B J 1997 Moss and soil contributions to the annual net carbon flux in a maturing boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 817-828.
Hobbie S E 1996 Temperature and plant species control over litter decomposition in Alaskan tundra. Ecol. Monogr. 66, 503-522.
Hobbie S E 1999 Arctic ecology. In Handbook of Functional Plant Ecology. Eds. F I Pugnaire and F Vallardes. pp 473-493. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
Hobbie S E, Schimel J P, Trumbore S E and Randerson J R 2000 A mechanistic understanding of carbon storage and turnover in high-latitude soils. Global Change Biol. 6, 196-210.
Högberg P, Johannisson C, Nicklasson H and Högbom L 1990 Shoot nitrate reductase activity of field-layer species in different forest types. Scandinavian J. For. Res. 5, 449-456.
Hogg P, Squires P and Fitter A H 1995 Acidification, nitrogen deposition and rapid vegetational change in a small valley mire in Yorkshire. Biol. Conserv. 71, 143-153.
Illeris L and Jonasson S 1999 Soil and plant CO2 emission in response to variations in soil moisture and temperature and to amendment with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in northern Scandinavia. Arctic and Alpine Res. 31, 264-271.
Jefferies R L and Bryant J P 1995 The plant-vertebrate herbivore interface in arctic ecosystems. In Arctic and Alpine Biodiversity: Patterns, Causes and Ecosystem Consequences. Eds. F S Chapin, III and C Körner. pp 271-281. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Jefferies R L, Svoboda J, Henry G, Raillard M and Ruess R 1992 Tundra grazing systems and climatic change. In Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate: An Ecophysiological Perspective. Eds. F S Chapin, III, R L Jefferies, J F Reynolds, G R Shaver and J Svoboda. pp 391-412. Academic Press, San Diego.
Jonasson S, Havström M, Jensen M and Callaghan T V 1993 In situ mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus of arctic soils after perturbations simulating climate change. Oecologia 95, 179-186.
Jonasson S, Michelsen A, Schmidt I K, Nielsen E V and Callaghan T V 1996 Microbial biomass C, N and P in two arctic soils and responses to addition of NPK fertilizer and sugar: Implications for plant nutrient uptake. Oecologia 106, 507-515.
Kasischke E S, Christensen N L, Jr. and Stocks B J 1995 Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests. Ecol. Appl. 5, 437-451.
Kielland K 1994 Amino acid absorption by arctic plants: implications for plant nutrition and nitrogen cycling. Ecology 75, 2373-2383.
Lachenbruch A H and Marshall B V 1986 Climate change: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan arctic. Science 234, 689-696.
Larsen J A 1980 The Boreal Ecosystem Academic Press, London UK. 500 p.
Likens G E, Driscoll C T, Buso D C, Siccama T G, Johnson C E, Lovett G M, Fahey T J, Reiners WA, Ryan D F, Martin C W and Bailey S W 1998 The biogeochemistry of calcium at Hubbard Brook. Biogeochemistry 41, 89-173.
Mäkipää R 1995 Effect of nitrogen input on carbon accumulation of boreal forest soils and ground vegetation. For. Ecol. Manage. 79, 217-226.
Marion G M and Black C H 1986 The effect of time and temperature on nitrogen mineralization in arctic tundra soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 51, 1501-1508.
McGill W B and Cole C V 1981 Comparative aspects of cycling of organic C, N, S, and P through soil organic matter. Geoderma 26, 267-286.
McKane R B, Rastetter E B, Shaver G R, Nadelhoffer K J, Giblin A E, Laundre J A and Chapin F S, III 1997a Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra. Ecology 78, 1188-1198.
McKane R B, Rastetter E B, Shaver G R, Nadelhoffer K J, Giblin A E, Laundre J A and Chapin F S III 1997b Climatic effects on tundra carbon storage inferred from experimental data and a model. Ecology 78, 1170-1187.
Nadelhoffer K J, Giblin A E, Shaver G R and Laundre J A 1991 Effects of temperature and substrate quality on element mineralization in six arctic soils. Ecology 72, 242-253.
Nadelhoffer K J, Giblin A E, Shaver G R and Linkins A E 1992 Microbial processes and plant nutrient availability in arctic soils In Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate: An Ecophysiological Perspective. Ed. F S Chapin, III, R L Jefferies, J F Reynolds, G R Shaver and J Svoboda. pp 281-300. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.
Näsholm T, Ekblad A, Nordin A, Giesler R, Högberg M and Högberg P 1998 Boreal forest plants take up organic nitrogen. Nature 392, 914-916.
Nohrstedt H-Ö 1985 Nonsymbiotic nitrogen fixation in the topsoil of some forest stands in central Sweden. Can. J. For. Res. 15, 715-722.
Nordin A, Högberg P and Näsholm T 2001 Soil N form availability and plant N uptake along a boreal forest productivity gradient. Oecologia 129, in press.
Oechel W C, Vourlitis G L and Hastings S J 1997 Cold season CO2 emission from arctic soils Global Biogeochem. Cycl. 11, 163-172.
Oechel W C, Vourlitis G L, Hastings S J, Ault R P, Jr and Bryant P 1998 The effects of water and elevated temperature on the net CO2 flux of wet sedge tundra ecosytems. Global Change Biol. 4, 77-90.
Pastor J, Dewey B, Naiman R J, McInnes P F and Cohen Y 1993 Moose browsing and soil fertility in the boreal forests of Isle Royale National Park. Ecology 74, 467-480.
Pastor J, Gardner R H, Dale V H and Post W M 1987 Successional changes in nitrogen availability as a potential factor contributing to spruce declines in boreal North America. Can. J. For. Res. 17, 1394-1400.
Peterson B J, Corliss T L, Kriet K and Hobbie J E 1992 Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and export for the upper Kuparuk River on the North Slope of Alaska in 1980 Hydrobiologia 240, 61-69.
Ping C L, Michaelson J and Kimble J M 1997 Carbon storage along a latitudinal transect in Alaska. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 49, 235-242.
Post E, Peterson R O, Stenseth N C and McLaren B E 1999 Ecosystem consequences of wolf behavioral response to climate Nature 401, 905-907.
Post W M 1990 Report of a workshop on climate feedbacks and the role of peatlands, tundra and boreal ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
Post W M, Emanuel W R, Zinke P J and Stangenberger A G 1982 Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298, 156-159.
Rastetter E B, McKane R B, Shaver G R, Nadelhoffer K J and Giblin A E 1997 Analysis of CO2, temperature, and moisture effects on carbon storage in Alaskan arctic tundra using a general ecosystem model. In Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosytems. Eds. W C Oechel, T Callaghan, T Gilmanov, J I Holten, B Maxwell, UMolau and B Sveinbjörnsson. pp 437-451. Springer, New York.
Rustad L E, Marion G M, Norby R J, Mitchell M J, Hartley A E, Cornellissen J H C, Gurevitch J and GTCE-NEWS 2001 A meta-anlysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126, 543-562.
Ryan M G, Binkley D and Fownes J H 1997 Age-related decline in forest productivity: Pattern and process Adv. Ecol. Res. 27, 213-262.
Schlesinger W H 1997 Biogeochemistry: An Analysis of Global Change Academic Press, San Diego. 443 p.
Schulze E-D 1989 Air pollution and forest decline in a spruce (Picea abies) forest. Science 244, 776-783.
Shaver G R, Billings W D, Chapin F S, III, Giblin A E, Nadelhoffer K J, Oechel W C and Rastetter E B 1992 Global change and the carbon balance of arctic ecosystems. BioScience 42, 433-441.
Shaver G R, Bret-Harte M S, Jones M H, Johnstone J Gough L, Laundre J A and Chapin F S, III 2001 Species composition interacts with fertilizer to control long-term change in tundra productivity. Ecology 82, 3163-3181.
Shaver G R and Chapin F S III 1991 Production: biomass relationships and element cycling in contrasting arctic vegetation types. Ecol. Monogr. 61, 1-31.
Shaver G R, Giblin A E, Nadelhoffer K J and Rastetter E B 1996 Plant functional types and ecosystem change in arctic tundras In Plant Functional Types: their Relevance to Ecosystem Properties and Global Change. Eds. T M Smith, H H Shugart and F I Woodward. pp 153-173. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Shaver G R, Johnson L C, Cades D H, Murray G, Laundre J A, Rastetter E B, Nadelhoffer K J and Giblin A E 1998 Biomass accumulation and CO2 flux in wet sedge tundras: Responses to nutrients, temperature and light. Ecol. Monogr. 68, 75-97.
Shaver G R, Nadelhoffer K J and Giblin A E 1991 Biogeochemical diversity and element transport in a heterogeneous landscape, the North Slope of Alaska. In Quantitative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Eds. M G Turner and R H Gardner. pp 105-126. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Smith S E and Read D J 1997 Mycorrhizal Symbiosis, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego.
Steffen W L, Walker B H, Ingram J S I and Koch G W 1992 Global change and Terrestrial Ecosystems: The Operational Plan. ICSU, Stockholm.
Van Cleve K and Alexander V 1981 Nitrogen cycling in tundra and boreal ecosystems In Ecological Bulletins. Eds. F E Clark and T Rosswall. pp 375-404.
Vitousek P M and Reiners W A 1975 Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: A hypothesis. BioScience 25, 376-381.
Vourlitis G L and Oechel W C 1997 Landscape-scale CO2, H2O vapor and energy flux of moist-wet coastal tundra ecosystems over two growing seasons. J. Ecol. 85, 575-590.
Whalen S C and Cornwell J C 1985 Nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon cycling in an arctic lake. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42, 797-808.
Winston G, Sundquist E T, Stephen B B and Trumbore S E 1997 Winter CO2 fluxes in a boreal forest. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 102, 28795-28804.
Zimov S A, Semiletov I P, Davidov S P, Voropaev I V, Prosyannikov S F, Wong C S and Chan Y-H 1993a Wintertime CO2 emission from soils of northeastern Siberia. Arctic 46, 197-204.
Zimov S A, Zimova G M, Daviodov S P, Daviodova A I, Voropaev Y V, Voropaeva Z V, Prosiannikov S F, Prosiannikova O V, Semiletova I V and Semiletov I P 1993b Winter biotic activity and production of CO2 in Siberian soils: A factor in the greenhouse effect. J. Geophys. Res. 98D, 5017-5023.