Ballatori, N. (1994). Glutathione mercaptides as transport forms of metals. Adv. Pharmacol.
Blus, L.J. (1984). DDE in birds' eggs: Comparison of two methods for estimating critical levels. Wilson Bull.
Brumbaugh, W.G., Krabbenhoft, D.P., Helsel, D.R., Wiener, J.G. and Echols, K.R. (2001). A national pilot study of mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems along multiple gradients: bioaccumulation in fish. Biological Science Report, USGS/BRD/BSR-2001–0009, 25pp.
Clarkson, T. W. (1971). Epidemiological and experimental aspects of lead and mercury contamination of food. Food Cosmet. Toxicol.
Clarkson, T. W. (1972). Recent advances in the toxicology of mercury with emphasis on alkylmercurials. Crit. Rev. Toxicol.
Clarkson, T.W. (1994). The toxicology of mercury and its compounds. C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee (eds) Mercury Pollution—Integration and Synthesis, pp. 631–41. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publ.
Cooper, J.J., Thomas, R.O. and Reed, S.M. (1985). Total mercury in sediment, water and fishes in Carson River drainage, west-central Nevada. Nevada Dept. Environ. Protection, Carson City. 96pp.
Cooper, J. J., Vigg, S., Bryce, R. W. and Jacobson, R. L. (1983). Limnology of Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada 1980–1981. Bioresources and Water Resources Centers, Desert Research Institute, Univ. Nevada, Reno Publ. No. 50021.
Cuvin-Aralar, M. L. A. and Furness, R. W. (1991). Mercury and selenium interaction: A review. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Safety
Frederick, P. C., Spalding, M. G., Sepulveda, M. S., Williams, G., Bouton, S., Lynch, H., Arrecis, J., Loerzel, S. and Hoffman, D. (1997). Effects of environmental mercury exposure on reproduction, health and survival of wading birds in the Florida Everglades. Final Report, Florida Dept. Environmental Protection.
Gardner, W.S., Kendall, D.R., Odum, R.R., Windom, H.L. and Stephens, J.A. (1978). The distribution of methyl mercury in a contaminated salt marsh ecosystem. Environ. Pollut.
Glick, B. (1986). Immunophysiology, In P.D. Sturkie (ed.) Avian Physiology, 4th edn, pp. 87–101. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Heinz, G.H. (1979). Methylmercury: reproductive and behavioral effects on three generations of mallard ducks. J. Wildl. Manage.
Henny, C.J. and Herron, G.B. (1989). DDE, selenium, mercury, and white-faced ibis reproduction at Carson Lake, Nevada. J. Wildl. Manage.
Henny, C.J., Blus, L.J., Krynitsky, A.J. and Bunck, C.M. (1984). Current impact of DDE on black-crowned night-herons in the intermountain west. J. Wildl. Manage.
Hill, E.F. (1981). Inorganic and organic mercury chloride toxicity to coturmix: sensitivity related to age and quantal assessment of physiological responses. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Maryland, College Park, 221pp.
Hill, E.F. and Soares, J.H., Jr. (1984). Subchronic mercury exposure in coturnix and a method of hazard evaluation. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Hoffman, D.J. and Heinz, G.H. (1998). Effects of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) on glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in mallard ducks. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Hoffman, D.J., Spalding, M. and Frederick, P. (1997). Subchronic effects of methylmercury in great egret nestlings. Abstracts of the 18th Annual Meeting, Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 16–20 November, p. 153. San Francisco, CA, USA.
Hoffman, D.J., Pendleton, G.W., Ohlendorf, H.M. and Marn, C.M. (1998). Association of mercury and selenium with altered glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in diving ducks from the San Francisco Bay region. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Hoffman, R.J. (1994). Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987–90 Part C. Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 92–4024 C, 32pp.
Hoffman, R.J., Hallock, R.J., Rowe, T.G., Lico, M.S., Burge, H.L. and Thompson, S.P. (1990). Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with the irrigation drainage in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986–87. USGS Water Resources Investigations Report 89–4015.
Kari, T. and Kauranen, P. (1978). Mercury and selenium contents of seals from fresh and brackish waters in Finland. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
Kim, E.Y., Murakima, T., Saeki, K. and Tatsukawa, R. (1996). Mercury levels and its chemical form in tissues and organs of seabirds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
Klaassen, C.D., Bracken, W.M., Dudley, R.E., Goering, P.L., Hazelton, G.A. and Hjelle, J.D. (1985). Role of sulfhydryls in the hepatotoxicity of organic and metallic compounds. Fund. Appl. Toxicol.
Koeman, J.H., Peeters, W.H.M., Koudstall-Hol, C.H.M., Tjioe, P.S. and Degoeu, J.J.M. (1973). Marine selenium correlations in Marine mammals. Nature
Kutsuna, M. (ed.) (1968). Minamata Disease. Study Group of Menamata Disease. Japan: Kumamoto University.
Liang, L., Danilchik, P. and Huang, Z. (1994). Elimination of the dependence on experimental conditions in the determination of selenium in water, sediment, coal, and biological samples by hydride generation. Atomic Spectroscopy, July/August, pp. 151–5.
Lodenius, M. (1994). Mercury in terrestrial ecosystems: A review, In C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee (eds). Mercury Pollution, Intergration and Synthesis, pp. 343–54. Boca Raton, FL, USA: Lewis Publ.
Lucotte, M., Mucci, A., Hillaire-Marcel, C., Pichet, P. and Grondin, A. (1995). Anthropogenic mercury enrichment in remote lakes of northern Quebec (Canada). Water Air Soil Pollut.
Newton, I. and Haas, M.B. (1988). Pollutants in merlin eggs and their effects on breeding. British Birds
Norheim, G. and Froslie, A. (1978). The degree of methylation and organ distribution of mercury in some birds of prey in Norway. ACTA Pharmacologica et Toxicologica
Nriagu, J.O., Pfeiffer, W.C., Malm, O., de Souza, C.M.M. and Mierle, G. (1992). Mercury pollution in Brazil. Nature
Pelletier, E. (1985). Mercury-selenium interaction in aquatic organisms: A review. Marine Environ. Res.
Pokras, M.A., Hanley, C. and Gordon, Z. (1998). Liver, mercury and methylmercury concentrations in New England common loons (Gavia immer). Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Richins, R.T. and Risser, A.C. (1975). Total mercury in water, sediment, and selected aquatic organisms, Carson River, Nevada. Pesticides Monitoring J.
Rice, D. and Barone, S., Jr (2000). Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing evidence from humans and animal models. Environ. Health Perspect.
108(Suppl. 3), 511–33.
SAS Institute. (1996). SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.
Scheuhammer, A.M., Atchison, C.M., Wong, A.H.K. and Evers, D.C. (1998). Mercury exposure in breeding common loons (Gavia immer) in central Ontario, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Smith, G.H. (1943). The history of the Comstock Lode, 1850–1920. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bull. 37.
Spalding, M.G., Bjork, R.D., Powell, G.V.N. and Sundlof, S.F. (1994). Mercury and cause of death in great white herons. J. Wildl. Manage.
Spalding, M.G., Frederick, P.C., McGill, H.C., Bouton, S.N., Richey, L.J., Schumacher, I.M., Blackmore, C.G.M. and Harrison, J. (2000a). Histologic, neurologic, and immunologic effects of methylmercury in captive great egrets. J. Wildl. Dis.
Spalding, M.G., Frederick, P.C., McGill, H.C., Bouton, S.N. and McDowell, L.R. (2000b). Methylmercury accumulation in tissues and effects on growth and appetite in captive great egrets. J. Wildl. Dis.
Suda, I. and Takahashi, H. (1986). Enhanced and inhibited biotransformation of methylmercury in the rat spleen. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
Swain, E.B., Engstrom, D.R., Brigham, M.E., Henning, T.A. and Brezonik, P.L. (1992). Increasing rates of atmospheric mercury deposition in midcontinental North America. Science
Thompson, D.R. (1996). Mercury in birds and terrestrial mammals, In W.N. Beyer, G.H. Heinz and A.W. Redmon-Norwood (eds). Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife—Interpreting Tissue Concentrations, pp. 341–56. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publ.
Thompson, D.R. and Furness, D.W. (1989). The chemical form of mercury stored in South Atlantic seabirds. Environ. Pollut.
Thompson, D.R., Hamar, K.C. and Furness, R.W. (1991). Mercury accumulation in great skuas Catharacta skua of known age and sex, and its effects upon breeding and survival. J. Appl. Ecol.
Tidball, R.R., Briggs, P.H., Stewart, K.C., Vaughn, R.B. and Welsch, E.P. (1991). Analytical data for soil and well core samples from Carson River basin, Lyon and Churchill Counties, Nevada. USGS Open-File Report 91–584, 140pp.
Tuttle, P.L., Higgins, D.K. and Quashnick, J. (2001). Mercury characterization in Lahontan Valley wetlands, Carson River Mercury Site, Lyon and Churchill Counties, Nevada, 1999. Report 1N45, U.S. Fish and Wildl. Service, Reno NV. 32pp.
Van Denburgh, A.S. (1973). Mercury in Carson and Truckee River Basins in Nevada. USGS Open-File Report 73–35.
Wayne, D.M., Warwick, J.J., Lechler, P.J., Gill, G.A. and Lyons, W.B. (1996). Mercury contamination in the Carson River, Nevada; a preliminary study of the impact of mining wastes. Water Air Soil Pollut.
Weseloh, D.V., Ewins, P.J., Struger, J., Mineau, P., Bishop, C.A., Postupalsky, S. and Ludwig, J.P. (1995). Double-crested cormorants of the Great Lakes: Changes in population size, breeding distribution and reproductive output between 1913 and 1991. Colonial Waterbirds
18(Special Publ.), 48–59.
Zillioux, E.J., Porcella, D.B. and Benoit, J.M. (1993). Mercury cycling and effects in freshwater wetland ecosystems. Environ. Toxicol. Chem.