Gender imbalance in living organ donation
- Nikola Biller-Andorno
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Living organ donation has developed into an important therapeutic option in transplantation medicine. However, there are some medico-ethical problems that come along with the increasing reliance on this organ source. One of these concerns is based on the observation that many more women than men function as living organ donors. Whereas discrimination and differential access have been extensively discussed in the context of cadaveric transplantation and other areas of health care, the issue of gender imbalance in living organ donation has received less attention. This paper presents relevant data from the Eurotransplant and UNOS transplantation systems and discusses possible explanations for the documented gender discrepancies. The conclusion calls for are view of existing practice guidelines in order to secure effective protection of particularly vulnerable potential donors and an equitable donor-recipient-ratio in living organ donation.
This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.
Bloembergen, W.E., F.K. Port, E.A. Mauger, J.P. Briggs and A.B. Leichtman: 1996, 'Gender discrepancies in living related renal transplant donors and recipients', Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 7, 1139–1144.PubMed
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association: 1991, 'Gender Disparities in Clinical Decision Making', Journal of the American Medical Association 266, 559–562.CrossRef
Donnelley, P.K. and D. Price (eds.): 1997, Questioning Attitudes to Living Donor Transplantation. European Multicenter Study Transplantation of Organs from Living Donors-Ethical and Legal Dimensions. Leicester: EUROTOLD.
Dossetor, J.B.: 1995, 'Economic, Social, Racial and Age-Related Considerations in Dialysis and Transplantation', Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 4, 498–501.PubMed
Ellison, M.D., T.J. Breen, F. Glascock, L.J. McGaw and O.P. Daily: 1992, 'Organ Donation in the United States: 1988 Through 1991', Clinical Transplantation, 119–128.
Eurotransplant: 1999, Annual report 1998. Leiden: Eurotransplant.
Filligim, R.B. (ed.): 2000, Sex, Gender, and Pain. Progress in Pain Research and Management, Vol. 17. Seattle, WA: IASP Press.
Gilligan, C.: 1982, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gilligan, C.: 1987, 'Moral Orientation and Moral Development', in: E.F. Kittay and D.T. Meyers (eds.), Women and Moral Theory. Totowa, New Jersey: Roman and Littlefield, pp. 19–33.
Goldman, M.B. and M.C. Hatch (eds.): 2000, Women and Health.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Harper, A.M., J.D. Rosendale, M.A. McBride, W.S. Cherikh and M.D. Ellison: 1998, 'The UNOS OPTNWaiting List and Donor Registry', Clinical Transplantation, 73–90.
Harper, A.M. and J.D. Rosendale: 1996, 'The UNOS OPTN Waiting List and Donor Registry: 1988–1996', Clinical Transplantation, 69–90.
Johnson, E.M., J.S. Najarian and A.J. Matas: 1997a, 'Living Kidney Donation: Donor Risks and Quality of Life', Clinical Transplantation, 231–240.
Kasten, H.: 1980, 'Entwicklung und Erprobung einer Altruismus-Beobachtungs-Systems', Gruppendynamik 11, 17–24.
Mastrioianni, A.C., R. Faden and D. Federman (eds.): 1994, Women and Health Research. Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies. Vol. 1 and 2. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Monroe, K.R.: 1996, The Heart of Altruism. Perceptions of a Common Humanity.Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Nicholson, M.L. and J.A. Bradley: 1999, 'Renal Transplantation from Living Donors', British Medical Journal 318, 409–410.PubMed
Noddings, N.: 1984, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education.Berkeley: University of California Press.
Ojo, A. and F.K. Port: 1993, 'Influence of Race and Gender on Related Donor Renal Transplantation Rates', American Journal of Kidney Diseases 22, 835–841.PubMed
Ruddick, S.: 1989, Maternal Thinking. Toward a Politics of Peace.Boston: Beacon Press.
Simmons, R.G. and C. Anderson: 1982, 'Related Donors and Recipients: Five to Nine Years Post-Transplant', Transplantation Proceedings 14, 9–12.
Simmons, R.G., C. Anderson and L. Kamstra: 1984, 'Comparison of Quality of Life of Patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, Hemodialysis, and after Transplantation', American Journal of Kidney Diseases 4, 253–255.PubMed
Simmons, R.G. and S.D. Klein: 1977, Gift of Life: the Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation.New York, NY: Wiley.
Smit, H., M. Molzahn, G. Kirste, R. Grupp and A. Koehler: 2000, Organspende und Transplantation in Deutschland 1999. Neu-Isenburg: Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation.
Smit, H., R. Sasse, M. Molzahn and B. Schulin: 1999, Organspende und Transplantation in Deutschland 1998.Neu-Isenburg: Deutsche Stiftung Organtransplantation.
Teraski, P.I.,M.J. Cecka, D.W.Gjertson and S. Takemoto: 1995, 'High Survival Rates of Kidney Transplants from Spousal and Living Unrelated Donors', New England Journal of Medicine 333, 333–336.CrossRef
United Network for Organ Sharing: 1999a, UNOS Transplant Patient Data Source. National Results for Kidney. Available at: http://www.patients.unos.org/tpd/.
United Network for Organ Sharing: 1999b, Number of Living Donors: January 1, 1988-June 30, 1999.Richmond, VA: UNOS OPTN/Scientific Registry.
Westlie, L., P. Fauchald, T. Talseth, A. Jakobsen and A. Flatmark: 1993, 'Quality of life in Norwegian kidney donors', Nephrology, Dialysis, Tranplantation 8, 1146–1150.
Zimmerman, D., S. Donnelly, J. Miller, D. Stewart and S.E. Albert: 2000, 'Gender Disparity in Living Renal Transplant Donation', American Journal of Kidney Diseases 36, 534–540.PubMed
- Gender imbalance in living organ donation
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy
Volume 5, Issue 2 , pp 199-203
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- ethical issues
- living organ donation
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine / Center for Psychosocial Medicine, University of Göttingen, Germany