American Psychiatric Association (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders III-R. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Bolton, P., Murphy, M., Macdonald, H., Whitlock, B., et al. (1997). Obstetric complications in autism: consequences or causes of the condition? Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 272–281.
Brask, B. H. (1972). A prevalence investigation of childhood psychosis. Barnespsykiatrisk forening: Nordic Symposium on the comprehensive care of the psychotic children (pp. 145–153). Oslo: Barnespsykiatrisk.
Cialdella, P., & Mamelle, N. (1989). An epidemiological study of infantile autism in a French Department (Rhone): A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 30, 165–175.
Cox, A., Rutter, M., Newman, S., & Bartak, L. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder: II. Parental characteristics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 146–159.
Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., & Selvin, S. (2001). The epidemiology of mental retardation of unknown cause. Pediatrics.107(6): E86 URL:http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/6/.86
Croen, L. A., Grether, J. K., Hoogstrate, J., & Selvin, S. (2002). The changing prevalence of autism in California. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 207–215.
Cryan, E., Byrne, M., O'Donovan, A., & O'Callaghan, E. (1996). Brief Report: A case-control study of obstetric complications and later autistic disorder. Journal of Autism Developmental Disorders, 26, 453–460.
Deykin, E. Y., & McMahon, B. (1980). Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications among autistic children. American Journal of Disorders of Children, 134, 860–864.
Filipek, P. A., Accardo, P., Baranek, G. T., Cook, E. H. Jr., Dawson, G., Gordon, B., et al. (1999). The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 29, 437–482.
Finegan, J.-A., Quarrington, B. (1979). Pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors and infantile autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 119–128.
Fombonne, E. (1999). The epidemiology of autism: A review. Psychological Medicine, 29, 769–786.
Gillberg, C. (1980). Maternal age and infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 10, 293–297.
Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, I. C. (1983). Infantile autism: A total population study of reduced optimality in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal period. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 153–166.
Gillberg, I., & Gillberg, C. (1996). Autism in immigrants: A population-based study from Swedish rural and urban areas. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 40(pt 1), 24–31.
Gillberg, C., & Schaumann, H. (1982). Social class and infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 223–228.
Gillberg, C., Steffenburg, S., Borjesson, B., & Andersson, L. (1987). Infantile autism in children of immigrant parents: A population-based study from Goteborg, Sweden. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 856–858.
Gillberg, C., & Wing, L. (1999). Autism: Not an extremely rare disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 99, 399–406.
Goodman, R., & Richards, H. (1995). Child and adolescent psychiatric presentations of second-generation Afro-Caribbeans in Britain. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 362–369.
Hillman, R., Kanafani, N., Takahashi, T., & Miles, J. (2000). Prevalence of autism in Missouri: Changing trends and the effect of a comprehensive state autism project. Missouri Medicine, 97, 159–163.
Hoshino, Y., Kumashiro, H., Yashima, Y., Tachibana, R., & Watanabe, M. (1982). The epidemiological study of autism in Fukushima-ken. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 36, 115–124.
Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.
Le Couteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., et al. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview: A standardized investigator-based instrument. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 363–387.
Lord, C., Mulloy, C., Wendelboe, W., & Schopler, E. (1991). Pre-and perinatal factors in high-functioning females and males with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21, 197–209.
Lord, C., & Schopler, E. (1985). Differences in sex ratios in autism as a function of measured intelligence. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15, 185–193.
Lord, C., Schopler, E., & Revicki, D. (1982). Sex differences in autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 317–330.
Lotter, V. (1996). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. I. Prevalence. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–137.
Lotter, V. (1967). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. II. Some characteristics of the parents and children. Social Psychiatry, 1, 163–173.
Mason-Brothers, A., Ritvo, E. R., Pingree, C., Peterson, P. B., Jenson, W. R., McMahon, W. M., et al. (1990). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey on autism: Prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal factors. Pediatrics, 86, 514–519.
McCarthy, P., Fitzgerald, M., & Smith, M. (1984). Prevalence of childhood autism in Ireland. Irish Medical Journal, 77, 129¶130.
Mouridsen, S. E. (1993). Parental age in infantile autism, autistic-like conditions, and borderline childhood psychosis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 23, 387–396.
Nelson, K. B. (1991). Prenatal and perinatal factors in the etiology and autism. Pediatrics, 87, 761–766.
Nordin, V., & Gillberg, C. (1996). Autism spectrum disorders in children with physical or mental disability or both. 1: Clinical and epidemiological aspects. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 38, 297–313.
O'Moore, M. A. (1972). A study of the aetiology of autism from a study of birth and family characteristics. Journal of Irish Medical Association, 65, 114–120.
Piven, J., Simon, J., Chase, G. A., Wzorek, M., Landa, R., Gayle, J. et al. (1993). The etiology of autism: pre-, peri-and neonatal factors. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 1256–1263.
Powell, J., Edwards, A., Edwards, M., Pandit, B., Sungum-Paliwal, S., & Whitehouse, W. (2000). Changes in the incidence of childhood autism and other autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children from two areas of the West Midlands, U.K. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 42, 624–628.
Rapin, I. (1999). Autism in search of a home in the brain [Editorial]. Neurology, 52, 902–904.
Ritvo, E., Cantwell, D., Johnson, E., Clements, M., Benbrook, F., Slagle, S., et al. (1971). Social class factors in autism. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 297–310.
Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Pingree, C., Mason-Brothers, A., Jorde, L., Jenson, W. R., McMahon, W. M., Peterson, P. B., Mo, A., & Ritvo, A. (1989). The UCLA-University of Utah epidemiologic survey of autism: Prevalence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 194–199.
Sanua, V. (1984). Is infantile autism a universal phenomenon? An open question. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 30, 163–177.
Schopler, E., Andrews, C., & Strupp, K. (1979). Do autistic children come from upper-middle-class parents? Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 139–152.
Selvin, S. (1995). Practical biostatistical methods. Belmont: Duxbury Press.
Sponheim, E., & Skjeldal, O. (1998). Autism and related disorders: Epidemiological findings in a Norwegian study using ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 217–227.
Steffenburg S., & Gillberg, C. (1986). Autism and autistic-like conditions in Swedish rural and urban areas: A population study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 81–87.
Steinhausen, H.-C., Gobel, D., Breinlinger, M., & Wohlleben, B. (1984). Maternal age and autistic children. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 5, 343–345.
Treffert, D. A. (1970). Epidemiology of infantile autism. Archive of General Psychiatry, 22, 431–439.
Tsai, L., Stewart, M., Faust, M., & Shook, S. (1982). Social class distribution of fathers of children enrolled in the Iowa Autism Program. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 211–221.
Tsai, L., & Stewart, M. (1983). Etiological implications of maternal age and birth order in infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 57–65.
Wing, J. (1966). Diagnosis, epidemiology, aetiology. In: Wing, J. (Ed.) Early childhood autism. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Wing, L. (1980). Childhood autism and social class: A question of selection? British Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 410–417.
Wing, L. (1981). Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatry Research, 5, 129–137.
Wing, L., & Gould, J. (1979). Severe impairments of social interactions and associated abnormalities in children: Epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 11–29.